Control-to-output Transfer Function of the Open-loop Step-up Converter in CCM Operation

  • Wang, Faqiang ;
  • Ma, Xikui
  • Received : 2013.10.06
  • Accepted : 2014.03.01
  • Published : 2014.09.01


Based on the average method and the geometrical technique to calculate the average value, the average model of the open-loop step-up converter in CCM operation is established. The DC equilibrium point and corresponding small signal model is derived. The control-to-output transfer function is presented and analyzed. The theoretical analysis and PSIM simulations shows that the control-to-output transfer function includes not only the DC input voltage and the DC duty cycle, but also the two inductors, the two energy-transferring capacitors, the switching frequency and the load. Finally, the hardware circuit is designed, and the circuit experimental results are given to confirm the effectiveness of theoretical derivations and analysis.


Step-up converter;Average model;Small signal model;Control-to-output transfer function


  1. R. W. Erickson and D. Maksimovic, Fundamentals of Power Electronics (2nd ed), Kluwer Academic Publishers: Boston, MA, 2001.
  2. F. L. Luo and H. Ye, Essential DC/DC Converters. Taylor & Francis: New York, USA, 2006.
  3. L. K. Wong and T. K. Man, "Small signal modeling of open-loop SEPIC converters," IET Power Electron., Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 858-868, 2010.
  4. D. Kwon and G. A. Rincon-Mora, "Single-inductormultiple- output switching DC-DC converters," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Express. Briefs, Vol. 56, No. 8, pp. 614-618, Aug 2009.
  5. K. I. Hwu, K. W. Huang, and W. C. Tu, "Step-up converter combining KY and Buck-Boost converters," Electron. Lett., Vol. 47, No. 12, 9th Jun. 2011.
  6. L. Benadero, V. Moreno-Font, R. Giral, and A. EI Aroudi, "Topologies and control of a class of single inductor multiple-output converters operating in continuous conduction mode," IET Power Electron., Vol. 4, No. 8, pp. 927-935, 2011.
  7. Y. B. Zhao, D. Y. Zhang, and C. J. Zhang, "Study on bifurcation and stability of the closed-loop currentprogrammed Boost converters," Chin. Phys., Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 933-936, 2007.
  8. K. I. Hwu and Y. T. Yau, "KY converter and its derivatives," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 128-137, Jan. 2009.
  9. S. K. Changchien, T. J. Liang, J. F. Chen, and L. S. Yang, "Novel high step-up DC-DC converter for fuel cell energy conversion system," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 57, No. 6, pp. 2007-2017, Jun. 2010.
  10. A. Kavitha and G. Uma, "Resonant parametric perturbation method to control chaos in current mode controlled DC-DC Buck-Boost converter," Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 171-178, 2010.
  11. W. H. Li, Y. Zhao, Y. Deng, and X. N. He, "Interleaved converter with voltage multiplier cell for high step-up and high-effciency conversion," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 25, No. 9, pp. 2397-2408, Sep. 2010.
  12. L. S. Yang, T. J. Liang, and J. F. Chen, "Transformerless DC-DC converters with high step-up voltage gain," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 56, No. 8, pp. 3144-3152, Aug. 2009.
  13. T. Sammaljarvi, F. Lakhdari, M. Karppanen, and T. Suntio, "Modelling and dynamic characterisation of peak-current-mode-controlled superboost converter," IET Power Electron., Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 527-536, 2008.
  14. S. -W. Lee, S. -R. Lee, and C. -H. Jeon, "A new high efficient bi-directional DC/DC converter in the dual voltage system," Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 343-350, 2006.
  15. M. Zhu and F.L. Luo, "Super-lift DC-DC converters: graphical analysis and modelling," Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 854-865, Nov. 2009.
  16. B.-R. Lin and C. -C. Chen, "New three-level PWM DC/DC converter-analysis, design and experiments," Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 30- 39, Jan. 2014.
  17. S. Onoda and A. Emadi, "PSIM-based modeling of automotive power systems: conventional, electric, and hybrid electric vehicles," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 390-400, Mar. 2004.
  18. M. Veerachary, "PSIM circuit-oriented simulator model for the nonlinear photovoltaic sources," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 735-740, Apr. 2006.
  19. PSIM User's Guide, Version 9.0, Release 3, Powersim Inc. May 2010.
  20. N. Femia, M. Fortunato, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and M. Vitelli, "Dynamic model of one-cycle control for converters operating in continuous and discontinuous conduction modes," Int. J. Circ. Theor. Appl., Vol. 37, pp. 661-684, 2009.
  21. R. D. Middlebrook and S. Cuk, "A general unified approach to modeling switching-converter power stages," Int. J. Electron., Vol. 42, No. 6, pp. 521-550, 1977.