DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Aberrant Methylation of Genes in Sputum Samples as Diagnostic Biomarkers for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: a Meta-analysis

  • Wang, Xu (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University) ;
  • Ling, Li (Department of Social Medicine and Health Service Administration, School of Health Management, Anhui Medical University) ;
  • Su, Hong (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University) ;
  • Cheng, Jian (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University) ;
  • Jin, Liu (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University)
  • Published : 2014.06.15

Abstract

Background: We aimed to comprehensively review the evidence for using sputum DNA to detect non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Chinese Biological Medicine (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Vip Databases and Google Scholar from 2003 to 2013. The meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effect model with sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odd ratios (DOR), summary receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curves), area under the curve (AUC), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as effect measurements. Results: There were twenty-two studies meeting the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Combined sensitivity and specificity were 0.62 (95%CI: 0.59-0.65) and 0.73 (95%CI: 0.70-0.75), respectively. The DOR was 10.3 (95%CI: 5.88-18.1) and the AUC was 0.78. Conclusions: The overall accuracy of the test was currently not strong enough for the detection of NSCLC for clinical application. Dscovery and evaluation of additional biomarkers with improved sensitivity and specificity from studies rated high quality deserve further attention.

References

  1. Abdul RJ, Hanaa B, Ahmet D, et al (2010). Modification and implementation of NCCN guidelines on non-small cell lung cancer in the middle east and north africa region. J Natl Compr Canc Netw, 8, 16-21.
  2. Anglim, Paul P, Todd AA, Ite ALO (2008). DNA methylation-based biomarkers for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer: an update. Mol Cancer, 7, 81-89. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-4598-7-81
  3. Anne WS, Johannes BR, Marcello DN (2006). Evidence of bias and variation in diagnostic accuracy studies. CMAJ, 4, 469-76.
  4. Bach PB, Kelley MJ, Tate RC, McCrory DC (2003). Screening for lung cancer: a review of the current literature. Chest, 123, 72-82. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.123.1_suppl.72S
  5. Belinsky SA, Klinge DM, Dekker JD, et al (2005). Gene promoter methylation in plasma and sputum increases with lung cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res, 11, 6505-11. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-0625
  6. Belinsky SA, Liechty KC, Gentry FD, et al (2006). Promoter hypermethylation of multiple genes in sputum precedes lung cancer incidence in a high-risk cohort. Cancer Res, 6, 3338-44.
  7. Carter D, Vazquez M, Flieder DB, et al (2007). Comparison of pathologic findings of baseline and annual repeat cancers diagnosed on CT screening. Lung Cancer, 56, 193-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2006.12.001
  8. Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, et al (2003). Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy. BMJ, 326, 41-4. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7379.41
  9. Brian HW, Muireann Q (2011). The assessment of the quality of reporting of meta-analyses in diagnostic research: a systematic review. BMC Med Res Methodol, 11, 163-74. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-163
  10. Cao AH, Wang X, Shi HJ (2008). The value of CT scan and tumor markers in sputum for early diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer. J Chongqing Medical University, 10, 1193-5.
  11. Cirincione R, Lintas C, Conte D, et al (2006). Methylation profile in tumor and sputum samples of lung cancer patients detected by spiral computed tomography: a nested case-control study. Int J Cancer, 5, 1248-53.
  12. Claudia H, Dorothy IM, David FY, et al (1999). Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening. The Lancet, 354, 99-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(99)06093-6
  13. Destro A, Bianchi P, Alloisio M, et al (2004). K-ras and p16 (INK4A) alterations in sputum of NSCLC patients and in heavy asymptomatic chronic smokers. Lung Cancer, 44, 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2003.10.002
  14. Deville WL, Buntinx F, Bouter LM, et al (2002). Conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic studies: didactic guidelines. BMC Med Res Methodol, 2, 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-2-9
  15. Federico C, Tudor C, Lilia S, et al (2010). Erlotinib as maintenance treatment in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol, 11, 521-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70112-1
  16. Feller-Kopman D, Lunn W, Ernst A (2005). Autofluorescence bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound: a practical review. Ann Thorac Surg, 80, 2395-401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2005.04.084
  17. Georgiou E, Valeri R, Tzimagiorgis G, et al (2007). Aberrant p16 promoter methylation among Greek lung cancer patients and smokers: correlation with smoking. Eur J Cancer Prev, 16, 396-402. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.cej.0000236260.26265.d6
  18. Feng Q, Hawes SE, Stern JE, et al (2008). DNA methylation in tumor and matched normal tissues from non-small cell lung cancer patients. Cancer Epidem Biomar, 17, 645-54. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-2518
  19. Gavelli G, Giampalma E (2000). Sensitivity and specificity of chest X-ray screening for lung cancer: review article. Cancer, 89, 2453-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(20001201)89:11+<2453::AID-CNCR21>3.0.CO;2-M
  20. Georgios N, Olaide YR, Soultana M (2012). DNA methylation biomarkers offer improved diagnostic efficiency in lung cancer. Cancer Res, 72, 5692-701; https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-2309
  21. Gordon HG, Andrew DO, Regina K (2011). GRADE guidelines 6. Rating the quality of evidence-imprecision. J Clin Epidemiol, 64, 1283-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2011.01.012
  22. Guo XJ, Shen L (2008). Diagnostic value of combinative detection of hypermethylation of p16 gene and cytokeratin 19 fragment and CA15-3 antigen for non-small cell lung cancer patients. Clinical Focus, 23, 1067-70.
  23. Hsu HS, Chen TP, Wen CK, et al (2007). Multiple genetic and epigenetic biomarkers for lung cancer detection in cytologically negative sputum and a nested case-control study for risk assessment. J Pathol, 213, 412-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/path.2246
  24. Hubers AJ, Prinsen CFM, Sozzi G (2013). Molecular sputum analysis for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Brit J Cancer, 109, 530-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2013.393
  25. Hu ZJ, Liu DY, Hu HB et al (2009). Clinical significance at diagnosis of lung cancer by detecting aberrant p16 promoter methylation in suspicious lung cancer patients. Chinese J Practical Internal Medicine, 29, 50-2.
  26. Hwang SH, Kim KU, Kim JE, et al (2011). Detection of HOXA9 gene methylation in tumor tissues and induced sputum samples from primary lung cancer patients. Clin Chem Lab Med, 49, 699-704.
  27. Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al (2007). Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 57, 43-66. https://doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.57.1.43
  28. Jacques F, Hai RS, Freddie B (2010). Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008. Int J Cancer, 127, 2893-917. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25516
  29. Jadad AR, Moore A, Carroll D, et al (1996). Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials, 17, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-2456(95)00134-4
  30. Jarmalaite S, Kannio A, Anttila S, Lazutka JR, Husgafvel-Pursiainen K (2003). Aberrant p16 promoter methylation in smokers and former smokers with non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Cancer, 106, 913-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11322
  31. Jiang W, Kang Y, Shi GY et al (2012). Comparisons of multiple characteristics between young and old lung cancer patients. Chin Med J, 125, 72-80.
  32. Kang CY, Wang DD, Tang SP, et al (2011). Effect of promoter hypermethylation of FHIT, p16, MGMT, RASSF1A and APC genes in sputum specimens on diagnosis of lung cancer. J Clin Ecp Pathol, 27, 869-873.
  33. Konno S, Morishita Y, Fukasawa M, et al (2004). Anthracotic index and DNA methylation status of sputum contents can be used for identifying the population at risk of lung carcinoma. Cancer, 102, 348-54. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.20643
  34. Li R, Todd NW, Qiu Q, et al (2007). Genetic deletions in sputum as diagnostic markers for early detection of stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res, 13, 482-7. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1593
  35. Lijmer JG, Mol BW, Heisterkamp S, et al (1999). Empirical evidence of design-related bias in studies of diagnostic tests. JAMA. 282, 1061-6. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.11.1061
  36. Liu Y, Lan Q, Shen M, et al (2008). Aberrant gene promoter methylation in sputum from individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions. Anticancer Res, 28, 2061-6.
  37. Olaussen KA, Soria JC, Park YW, et al (2005). Assessing abnormal gene promoter methylation in paraffin-embedded sputum from patients with NSCLC. Eur J Cancer, 41, 2112-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2005.06.013
  38. Melvyn S, Tockman (2000). Advances in sputum analysis for screening and early detection of lung cancer. Cancer Control, 7, 19-24.
  39. Miozzo M, Sozzi G, Musso K, et al (1996). Microsatellite alterations in bronchial and sputum specimens of lung cancer patients. Cancer Res, 56, 2285-8.
  40. Molina JR, Yang P, Cassivi SD, Schild SE, Adjei AA (2008). Non-small cell lung cancer: epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, and survivorship. Mayo Clin Proc, 83, 584-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-6196(11)60735-0
  41. Pai M, Flores LL, Pai N, et al (2003). Diagnostic accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests for tuberculous meningitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis, 3, 633-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00772-2
  42. Palmisano WA, Divine KK, Saccomanno G, et al (2000). Predicting lung cancer by detecting aberrant promoter methylation in sputum. Cancer Res, 60, 5954-8.
  43. Parkin DM, Bray FI, Devesa SS (2001). Cancer burden in the year 2000. The global picture. Eur J Cancer, 37, 4-66.
  44. Peng ZM, Shan CT, Wang HF (2010). Value of promoter methylation of RASSF1A, p16, and DAPK genes in induced sputum in diagnosing lung cancers. J Cent South Univ (Med Sci), 35, 247-53.
  45. Penny FW, Anne WS, Westwood, et al (2011). QUADAS-2: A revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. Ann Intern Med, 155, 529-37. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-155-8-201110180-00009
  46. Ramshankar V, Krishnamurthy A (2013). Lung cancer detection by screening-presenting circulating miRNAs as a promising next generation biomarker breakthrough. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 2167-72. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2167
  47. Suzuki MM, Bird A (2008). DNA methylation landscapes: provocative insights from epigenomics. Nat Rev Genet, 9, 465-76. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2341
  48. Shin KC, Lee KH, Lee CH, et al (2012). MAGE A1-A6 RT-PCR and MAGE A3 and p16 methylation analysis in induced sputum from patients with lung cancer and non-malignant lung diseases. Oncol Rep, 27, 911-6.
  49. Shivapurkar N, Stastny V, Suzuki M, et al (2007) Application of a methylation gene panel by quantitative PCR for lung cancers. Cancer Lett, 247, 56-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2006.03.020
  50. Sun N, Zhang L, Liu YY, et al (2013). Methylation of p16 and RASSF1A genes in sputum samples associated with peripheral non-small cell lung cancer. Prog Modern Biomedicine, 12, 2503-10.
  51. Tsou JA, Galler JS, Siegmund KD, et al (2007). Identification of a panel of sensitive and specific DNA methylation markers for lung adenocarcinoma. Mol Cancer, 6, 70-9.
  52. Van der Drift MA, Prinsen CF, Hol BE, et al (2004). Can free DNA be detected in sputum of lung cancer patients? Lung Cancer, 61, 385-90.
  53. Wang X, Cao A, Peng M, et al (2004). The value of chest CT scan and tumor markers detection in sputum for early diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer. Chinese J Lung Cancer, 7, 58-63.
  54. Wang YC, Hsu HS, Chen TP, Chen JT (2006). Molecular diagnostic markers for lung cancer in sputum and plasma. Ann NY Acad Sci, 1075, 179-84. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1368.024
  55. Whiting P, Rutjes AW, Dinnes J, et al (2004). Development and validation of methods for assessing the quality of diagnostic accuracy studies. Health Technol Asses, 8, 1-234.
  56. Whiting P, Rutjes AW, Reitsma JB, et al (2004). Sources of variation and bias in studies of diagnostic accuracy: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med, 140, 189-202. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-140-3-200402030-00010
  57. Ziaian B, Saberi A, Ghayyoumi MA, et al (2014). Association of high ldh and low glucose levels in pleural space with her2 expression in non-small cell lung cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 1617-20. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.4.1617
  58. Xie GS, Hou AR, Li LY, Gao YN, Cheng SJ (2006). Aberrant p16 promoter hypermethylation in bronchial mucosae as a biomarker for the early detection of lung cancer. Chin Med J, 119, 1469-72.
  59. Zhang W, Sun YE, Lu GM (2004). The diagnostic value of determination of p16 methylation of sputum exfoliated cells for peripheral lung cancer. Chin J Lung Cancer, 7, 46-9.
  60. Zhang W, Yu CH, Xia H, et al (2012). Diagnostic value of determination of p16 methylation and k-ras mutation of sputum exfoliated cells for peripheral lung cancer. China J Modern Medicine, 22, 9-13.

Cited by

  1. The Indirect Efficacy Comparison of DNA Methylation in Sputum for Early Screening and Auxiliary Detection of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis vol.14, pp.7, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070679