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Association between Vegetable, Fruit and Carbohydrate Intake and Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Physical Activity

  • Kruk, Joanna (Department of Prevention and Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, University of Szczecin)
  • Published : 2014.06.15

Abstract

Background: Although the nutritional may exert effect on the breast cancer risk, it is not clear whether the role diet is the same in sedentary and physically active women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fruit, vegetable and carbohydrate intake and the risk of breast cancer among Polish women considering their physical activity level. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted that included 858 women with histological confirmed breast cancer and 1,085 controls, free of any cancer diagnosis, aged 28-78 years. The study was based on a self-administered questionnaire to ascertain physical activity, dietary intake, sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive factors, family history of breast cancer, current weight and high, and other lifestyle factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in unconditional logistic regression analyses including a broad range of potential confounders. Results: With comparison of the highest vs lowest quartile of intake, strong significant associations were observed for total vegetables (OR=0.37, 95%CI=0.20-0.69 P for trend <0.01 and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.29-0.96, P for trend <0.02), and total fruits (OR=0.47, 95%CI=0.25-0.87, P for trend <0.05 and OR=0.47, 95%CI=0.24-0.90, P for trend <0.02) among women characterized by the lowest and the highest quartile of physical activity. No associations were observed for total carbohydrate intake. Additional analysis showed a positive association for sweets and desert intake among women in the lowest quartile of physical activity (OR=3.49, 95%CI=1.67-7.30, P for trend <0.009) for extreme quartiles of intake comparing to the referent group. Conclusions: The results suggest that a higher consumption of vegetable and fruit may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, especially among women who were low or most physically active throughout their lifetimes. These findings do not support an association between diet high in carbohydrate and breast cancer. However, a higher intake of sweets and deserts may by associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among women who were less physically active.

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