An Integrated Epidemiological and Economic Analysis of Vaccination against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam

  • Zhang, Haifeng (Graduate School of Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine) ;
  • Kono, Hiroichi (Department of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine) ;
  • Kubota, Satoko (Department of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine)
  • Received : 2014.01.23
  • Accepted : 2014.04.24
  • Published : 2014.10.01


The purposes of this study are to assess pig farmers' preference for highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine, and estimate the cost and benefit of PRRS vaccination in Vietnam. This study employed an integrated epidemiological and economic analysis which combined susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model, choice experiment (CE) and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) together. The result of SIR model showed the basic reproduction number ($R_0$) of PRRS transmission in this study is 1.3, consequently, the optimal vaccination percentage is 26%. The results of CE in this study indicate that Vietnam pig farmers are showing a high preference for the PRRS vaccine. However, their mean willingness to pay is lower than the potential cost of PRRS vaccine. It can be considered to be one of the reasons that the PRRS vaccination ratio is still low in Vietnam. The results of CBA specified from the whole society's point of view (Social perspective), the benefits of PRRS vaccination are 2.3 to 4.5 times larger than the costs. To support policy making for increasing the PRRS vaccination proportion, this study indicates two ways to increase the vaccination proportion: i) decrease vaccine price by providing a subsidy, ii) provide compensation of culling only for PRRS vaccinated pigs.


Choice Experiment;Cost-Benefit Analysis;Susceptible-infectious-recovered Model;Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome;Vietnam


  1. Wills, R. W., A. R. Doster, and F. A. Osorio. 2002. Transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to age-matched sentinel pigs. J. Swine Health Prod. 10:161-165.
  2. Zhang, H. and H. Kono. 2012. Economic impacts of porcine respective and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreak in Vietnam pig production. Trop. Agric. Res. 23:152-159.
  3. Zhang, H., H. Kono, S. Kubota, N. T. M. Hoa, and N. V. Hung. 2013. Epidemiologic and economic analysis of porcine HP-PRRS outbreak control in Vietnam. J. Agric. Dev. Stud. 23:31-42.
  4. Zhang, H., H. Kono, H. Makita, and S. Kubota. 2014. An integrated epidemiological-economic analysis of HP-PRRS control strategies in Vietnam, Japanese J. Rural Econ. 16:57-64.
  5. Zhuyiwang (Pig news). 2012. New attenuated PRRS vaccine is on sale. 27th May, 2009, (In Chinese). Accessed November 21, 2012.
  6. McIntosh, E. 2006. Using discrete choice experiments within a cost-benefit analysis framework. Pharmacoeconomics 24:855-868.
  7. McIntoch, E. and M. Ryan. 2002. Using discrete choice experiments to derive welfare estimates for the provision of elective surgery: Implications of discontinuous preferences. J. Econ. Psychol 23:367-382.
  8. Morris R. 1969. Assessing the economic value of veterinary services to primary industries. Aust. Vet. J. 45:295-300.
  9. Nodelijk, G., M. C. M. D. Jong, A. V. Nes, J. C. M. Vernooy, L. A. M. G. V. Leengoed, J. M. A. Pol, and J. H. M. Verheijden. 2000. Introduction, persistence and fade-out of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a Dutch breeding herd: a mathematical analysis. Epidemiol. Infect. 124:173-182.
  10. Otieno, D. J., E. Ruto, and L. Hubbard. 2011. Cattle farmers' preferences for disease-free zones in Kenya: An application of the choice experiment method. J. Agric. Econ. 62:207-224.
  11. Revelt, D. and K. Train. 1998. Mixed logit with repeated choices: Household's choices of appliance efficiency level. Rev. Econ. Stat. 80:647-657.
  12. Rich, K. M. and A. Winter-Nelson. 2007. An integrated epidemiological-economic analysis of foot and mouth disease: Applications to the southern cone of South America. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 89:682-697.
  13. Roessler, R., P. Herold, A. Willan, H. P. Piepho, L. T. Thuy, and A. Valle Zarate. 2009. Modelling of a recording scheme for market-oriented smallholder pig producers in Northwest Vietnam. Livest. Sci. 123:241-248.
  14. Train, K. E. 2003. Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA.
  15. Vynnycky, E. and R. White. 2010. An Introduction to Infectious Disease Modeling. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA.
  16. Wakui, Y. 2009. Dougu tosite no beizutoukei (Analyzing tool of Bayesian statistics). Nippon Jitugyou Publishing, Tokyo, Japan. (in Japanese).
  17. Holtkamp, D., K. James, Z. Jeff, N. Eric, R. Hans, Y. Tiffany, W. Chong, Y. Paul, and H. Charles, 2012. Economic analysis of PRRS virus elimination from a herd. Iowa state university animal industry report 2012. Accessed January 23, 2014.
  18. Hitzhusen, F., B. Macgregor, and D. Southate. 1984. Private and social cost-benefit perspectives and a case application on reservoir sedimentation management. Water Int. 9:181-184.
  19. Keeling, M. and P. Rohani. 2008. Modeling infectious disease in humans and animals. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
  20. Kermack, W. O. and A. G. McKendrick. 1927. A contribution to the mathematical theory of epidemics. Proc. R. Soc. (London) 115:700-721.
  21. Lancaster, K. 1966. A new approach to consumer theory. J. Polit. Econ. 74:132-157.
  22. Lanzas, C., S. Brien, R. Ivanek, Y. Lo, P. P. Chapagain, K. A. Ray, P. Ayscue, L. D. Warnick, and Y. T. Grohn. 2008. The effect of heterogeneous infectious period and contagiousness on the dynamics of Salmonella transmission in dairy cattle. Epidemiol. Infect. 136:1496-1510.
  23. Lemke, U., B. Kaufmann, L. T. Thuy, K. Emrich, and A. Valle Zarate. 2006. Evaluation of smallholder pig production systems in North Vietnam: Pig production management and pig performances. Livest. Sci. 105:229-243.
  24. Lemke, U., M. Mergenthaler, R. Rossler, L. Huyen, P. Herold, B. Kaufmann, and A. Valle-Zarate. 2008. Pig production in Vietnam . A review. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources. 23:1-15.
  25. Louviere, J., D. A. Hensher, and J. Swait. 2000. Stated Choice Methods: Analysis and Application. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  26. McFadden, D. 1973. Conditional logit analysis of qualitative choice behavior. In: Frontiers in Econometrics (Ed. P. Zarembke). Academic Press, New York, USA. pp. 447-470.
  27. Anderson, R. and R. May. 1992. Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK.
  28. Bateman, I. J., R. T. Carson, B. Day, M. Hanemann, N. Hanley, T. Hett, M. Jones-Lee, G. Loomes, S. Mourato, E. Ozdemiroglu, D. W. Pearce, R. Sugden, and J. Swanson. 2002. Economic Valuation with Stated Preference Techniques: A Manual. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.
  29. Bates, T. W., T. E. Carpenter, and M. C. Thurmond. 2003. Benefit-cost analysis of vaccination and preemptive slaughter as a means of eradicating foot-and mouth disease. Am. J. Vet. Res. 64:805-812.
  30. Bennett, R. and K. Balcombe. 2012. Farmers' willingness to pay for a tuberculosis cattle vaccine. J. Agric. Econ. 63:408-424.
  31. Berentsen, P., A. Dijkhuizen, and A. Oskam. 1992. A dynamic model for cost-benefit analyses of foot-and-mouth disease control strategies. Prev. Vet. Med. 12:229-243.
  32. Charpin, C., S. Mahe, A. Keranflech, C. Belloc, R. Cariolet, M. F. Potier, and N. Rose. 2012. Infectiousness of pigs infected by the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) is time-dependent. Vet. Res. 2012:43-69.
  33. De Jong, M. C. M. 1995. Mathematical modeling in veterinary epidemiology: Why model building is important. Prev. Vet. Med. 25:183-193.
  34. Dietze, K., J. Pinto, S. Wainwright, and C. Hamilton. 2011. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): virulence jumps and persistent circulation in Southeast Asia. In Focus on..., 5, p. 8. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  35. Greene, W. H. and D. A. Hensher. 2003. A latent class model for discrete choice analysis: Contrasts with mixed logit. Transp. Res.Part B. Methodol. 37:681-698.
  36. Hausman, J. and D. McFadden. 1984. Specification tests for the multinomial logit model. Econometrica. 52:1219-1240.
  37. An, T., Z. Tian, Y. Xiao, R. Li, J. Peng, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and G. Tong. 2010. Origin of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, China. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16:365-367.

Cited by

  1. Expression of peptide nanoparticles containing a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus epitope in plants vol.9, pp.24, 2015,