Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics

  • Lee, J.H. (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Cho, S. (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Paik, H.D. (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University) ;
  • Choi, C.W. (Department of Biology and Medicinal Science, Paichai University) ;
  • Nam, K.T. (Division of Animal Life and Environmental Science, Hankyong National University) ;
  • Hwang, S.G. (Division of Animal Life and Environmental Science, Hankyong National University) ;
  • Kim, Soo-Ki (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University)
  • Received : 2013.10.05
  • Accepted : 2014.05.01
  • Published : 2014.10.01


This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, $135{\mu}g/mL$. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of $306{\mu}g/mL$ and $183{\mu}g/mL$, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% ($EC_{50}$) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and $47.8{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Flavonoid content of methanol extracts in S. grandiflora L. T was $22.5{\mu}g/mL$ and the highest among plant extracts tested. These results indicated that C. aurantifolia Swingle, S. grandiflora L., P. sarmentosum Roxb, and C. domestica Valeton have antibacterial and antioxidant activities and can be used as alternative antibiotics or potential feed additives for the control of animal pathogenic bacteria.


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