DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Partial or Total Replacement of Maize with Alternative Feed Source on Digestibility, Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites and Economics in Limousin Crossbred Cattle

  • Shi, F.H. ;
  • Fang, L. ;
  • Meng, Q.X. ;
  • Wu, H. ;
  • Du, J.P. ;
  • Xie, X.X. ;
  • Ren, L.P. ;
  • Zhou, Z.M. ;
  • Zhou, B.
  • Received : 2014.01.23
  • Accepted : 2014.04.15
  • Published : 2014.10.01

Abstract

Increasing cost and scarcity of maize has stimulated the use of alternative feed sources (AFS) in the diets of cattle. In this study, we investigated the effects of partial or total replacement of maize on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood metabolites, and economics in Limousin crossbred feedlot cattle. Forty-five $Limousin{\times}Luxi$ crossbred bulls were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups, orthodox diet (OD; 45.0% maize), partial replacement diet (PRD; 15% maize, 67% AFS), total replacement diet (TRD; 0% maize, 100% AFS). The growth feeding trial lasted for 98 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were recorded. The digestion trial was carried out after the end of the growth trial. Total faeces and feed samples were measured daily. Digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were calculated. After the feeding trial, blood metabolites were measured in 12 animals from each group. Initial and final body weights did not differ significantly among treatment groups (p>0.05). The ADG and DMI were 1.72 and 8.66, 1.60 and 9.10, and 1.40 and 9.11 kg/d for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively. The PRD and TRD exhibited lower ADG (p<0.01) and higher DMI (p<0.01) than OD. The DMI (%body weight) was comparable between groups (p>0.5). Feed efficiency of PRD and TRD were lower than OD (p<0.01). The DM digestibility decreased with reduced level of maize (p = 0.10), OM digestibility was higher in OD (p<0.05), and CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities were similar for all groups (p>0.05). Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) in PRD and TRD was higher than OD (p<0.01), while other blood parameters did not differ significantly. Feed costs ($/head/d) were 1.49, 0.98, and 0.72 for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively (p<0.01). Feed costs per kg gain ($) were significantly lower for PRD (0.63) and TRD (0.54) than OD (0.89; p<0.01). Overall profit ($/head) and daily profit ($/head/d) did not differ significantly between treatments (p>0.05), although TRD showed the highest economic benefits overall (p<0.01). While a traditional diet maximized the growth rate, partial or total replacement of dietary maize with AFS proved economically feasible due to their lower costs and comparable nutrient digestibilities of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF. Partial replacement may prove economically competitive in the current situation of China.

Keywords

Limousin Crossbred Cattle;Alternative Feed Sources;Growing Performance;Nutrient Digestibility;Blood Metabolites

References

  1. Wang, Z. H., W. Y. Jiang, Z. Zhong, and L. X. Wang. 2004. Feeding effects on finishing cattle by substituting soybean meal by dry bean curd pulp. J. Yellow Cattle Sci. 30:15-17 (In Chinese with English abstract).
  2. Wang, H. L. and J. F. Cavins. 1989. Yield and amino acid composition of fractions obtained during tofu production. Cereal Chem. 66:359-361.
  3. Weiss, W. P. 1993. Predicting energy values of feeds. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1802-1811. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77512-8
  4. Xie, X. X., Q. X. Meng, L. P. Ren, F. H. Shi, and B. Zhou. 2012. Effect of cattle breed.on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 11e58:312-316.
  5. Xiong, Y., S. J. Bartle, and R. L. Preston. 1990. Improved enzymatic method to measure processing effects and starch availability in sorghum grain. J. Anim. Sci. 68:3861-3870.
  6. Yuan, Y. H., Z. P. Gao, and Y. G. Shi. 2002. Industrialization of Chinese jujube. J. Northwest Sci. Technol. Univ. Agric. Forest. 30:95-98 (In Chinese with English abstract).
  7. Zhou, H. L., M. Fang, Q. Li, H. W. Huang, and P. Xu. 2006. Response of NDF in the diets to the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein of growing bulls. Acta EcoIogiae Animalis Domastici 27:59-64 (In Chinese with English abstract).
  8. Nagalakshmi, D., K. Dhanalakshmi, and D. Himabindu. 2011. Replacement of groundnut cake with sunflower and karanj seed cakes on performance, nutrient utilisation, immune response and carcass characteristics in Nellore lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 97:12-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.02.003
  9. NRC. 1984. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (6th Ed.). National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  10. NRC. 2000. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 7th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  11. Obeidat, B. S., A. Y. Abdullah, and F. A. Al-Lataifeh. 2008. The effect of partial replacement of barley grains by Prosopis juliflora pods on growth performance, nutrient intake, digestibility, and carcass characteristics of Awassi lambs fed finishing diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 146:42-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.12.002
  12. Ponnampalam, E. N., A. R. Egan, A. J. Sinclair, and B. J. Leury. 2005. Feed intake, growth, plasma glucose and urea nitrogen concentration, and carcass traits of lambs fed isoenergetic amounts of canola meal, soybean meal and fish meal with forage based diet. Small Rumin. Res. 58:245-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2004.10.007
  13. SAS, 2000. User's Guide: Statistics, Version 8.0. SAS Institute Inc. Carry, NC, USA.
  14. State Forestry Administration of China. 2011. China Forestry Statistic Yearbook of 2010. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing. (In Chinese with English abstract)
  15. Vander Pol, K. J., G. E. Erickson, T. J. Klopfenstein, M. A. Greenquist, and T. Robb. 2006. Effect of dietary inclusion of wet distillers grains on feedlot performance of finishing cattle and energy value relative to maize. Nebraska Beef Cattle Rep. MP88-A, 51-53.
  16. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysacharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  17. Ham, G. A., R. A. Stock, T. J. Klopfenstein, E. M. Larson, D. H. Shain, and R. P. Huffman. 1994. Wet maize distillers byproducts compared with dried maize distillers grains with solubles as a source of protein and energy for ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 72:3246-3257.
  18. Horn, G. W. and F. T. McCollum. 1987. Energy supplementation of grazing ruminants. In: Proceedings Grazing Livestock Nutrition Conference (Eds. M. B. JudKins, D. C. Clanton, M. K. Petersen, J. D. Wallace). Jackson Hole, WY, USA. pp. 125-136.
  19. Larson, E. M., R. A. Stock, T. J. Klopfenstein, M. H. Sindt, and R. P. Huffman. 1993. Feeding value of wet distillers byproducts for finishing ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 71:2228-2236.
  20. Li, J. W., S. D. Ding, P. P. Li, and L. P. Fan. 2009. Study on composition and function of five cultivars of Chinese jujube. Sci. Technol. Food Ind. 30:294-296 (In Chinese with English abstract).
  21. Lin, X. J. 2009. The development and application of non-cereal feed resources in the modern beef cattle industry. North. Livest. 8-9 (In Chinese with English abstract).
  22. Mahgoub, O., I. T. Kadim, D. S. Al-Ajmi, N. M. Al-Saqri, A. S. Al-Abri, A. R. Richie, K. Annamalai, and N. E. Forsberg. 2004. The effect of replacing Rhodes Grass (Chloris gayana) hay with Ghaf (Prosopis cineraria) pods on the performance of Omani native sheep. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 36:281-294. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:TROP.0000016829.63985.2c
  23. Mahgoub, O., I. T. Kadim, E. H. Johnson, A. Srikandakumar, N. M. Alsaqri, A. S. Al-Abri, and A. Richie. 2005. The use of a concentrate containing meskit (Prosopis juliflora) pods and date palm by-products to replace commercial concentrate in diets of Omani sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 120:33-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.01.011
  24. McDonald P., R. A. Edwards, J. F. D. Greenhalgh, C. A. Morgan, L. A. Sinclair, and R. G. Wilkinson. 2011. Voluntary intake of food. In: Animal Nutrition (Eds. P. McDonald et al.). 7th Edition. Prentice Hall/Pearson, Harlow, England. pp. 461-477.
  25. Abo Omar, J. M. 2002. Effect of feeding different levels of sesame oil cake on performance and digestibility of Awassi lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 46:187-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(02)00173-6
  26. Al Jassim, R. A. M., K. I. Ereifej, R. A. Shipli, and A. Abudabos. 1998. Utilization of concentrate diets containing acorns (Quercus aegilops and Quercus coccifera) and urea by growing Awassi lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 29:289-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(97)00124-7
  27. Al-Suwaiegh, S., K. C. Fanning, R. J. Grant, C. T. Milton, and T. J. Klopfenstein. 2002. Utilization of distillers grains from the fermentation of sorghum or corn in diets for finishing beef and lactating dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1105-1111.
  28. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis.15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Arlington, VA, USA.
  29. Bampidis, V. A. and P. H. Robinson. 2006. Citrus by-products as ruminant feeds: A Review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 128:175-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.12.002
  30. Batajoo, K. K. and R. D. Shaver. 1994. Impact of non-fiber carbohydrate on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:1580-1588. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77100-9
  31. Bowman, J. G. P. and D. W. Sanson. 1996. Starch- or fiber-based energy supplements for grazing ruminants. In: 3rd Grazing Livestock Nutrition Conference (Eds. M. B. Judkins and F. T. McCollum III). Proc. West. Sect. Am. Soc. Anim. Sci. 47 (Suppl. 1):118-135.
  32. Cruz, G. D., J. A. Rodriguez-Sanchez, J. W. Oltjen, R. D. Sainz. 2010. Performance, residual feed intake, digestibility, carcass traits, and profitability of Angus-Hereford steers housed in individual or group pens. J. Anim. Sci. 88:324-329. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-1932
  33. Eun, J. S., D. R. ZoBell, and R. D. Wiedmeier. 2009. Influence of replacing barley grain with maize-based dried distillers grains with solubles on production and carcass characteristics of growing and finishing beef steers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 152:72-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2009.03.011
  34. Abdullah, A. Y. and B. Y. Abddel hafes. 2004. Inclusion of Prosopis juliflora pods in finishing Awassi lamb diets. In: Proceeding of 11th AAAP Animal Science Congress. September 5-9, 2004; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 2:373-375.

Cited by

  1. Partial replacements of Stylosanthes scabra forage for lucerne in total mixed ration diet of Saanen goats vol.47, pp.7, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-015-0876-6
  2. Influence of pasture or total mixed ration on fatty acid composition and expression of lipogenic genes of longissimus thoracis and subcutaneous adipose tissues in Albas White Cashmere Goats pp.1828-051X, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2018.1490632
  3. Potassium and Manganese Fertilization and the Effects on Millet Seed Yield, Seed Quality, and Forage Potential of Residual Stalks vol.09, pp.07, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2018.97061
  4. Effects of palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis) on intake, digestibility, performance, ingestive behaviour and carcass traits in Nellore bulls pp.1469-5146, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859618001168