- Volume 15 Issue 12
DOI QR Code
Stage-Wise Presentation of Non-Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer: an Analysis of Patients from the Kumaon Hills of India
- Pandey, Kailash Chandra (Department of Radiotherapy, Government Medical College) ;
- Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop (Department of Radiotherapy, Government Medical College) ;
- Pant, Nirdosh Kumar (Department of Radiotherapy, Government Medical College) ;
- Bhatt, Harish Chandra (Social Worker (Volunteer))
- Published : 2014.06.30
Background: Head and neck cancer without distant metastases is amenable to various modalities of treatment. However, the stage at presentation is a very important determinant for treatment success. The present study was conducted to determine the stage-wise presentation of non-metastatic head and neck cancer patients from the hilly regions in Kumaon division of Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: The hospital records for non-metastatic head and neck cancer patients from the only functional cancer centre of the region for the period of two-years (January 2012-December 2013) were included. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma was excluded due to its staging system being different. Non-squamous histopathologies were also excluded. Patients hailing from nearby regions of Uttar Pradesh and Nepal were excluded, as were patients from non-hilly regions of Kumaon. Results: Of the 271 patients of head and neck cancer, 27 with distant metastases at diagnosis were excluded from the analysis. Of the 244 eligible patient records, 90.1% (n=222) were male, and 9.9% (n=22) were female. The proportions of patients with carcinoma of the larynx, oropharynx, oral cavity, hypopharynx and maxillary antrum were 31.9% (n=78), 27.9% (n=68), 20.5% (n=50), 12.7% (n=31) and 1.2% (n=3). A further 5.7% (n=14) were diagnosed as having secondary involvement of neck nodes with unknown primaries. The proportion of patients presenting in stages I, II, III, IVA and IVB were 0.8% (n=2), 2.5% (n=6), 9.4% (n=23), 51.6% (n=126) and 35.7% (n=87) respectively. Conclusions: An abysmally low proportion (3.3%) of non-metastatic head and neck cancer patients presented in the early stages (I and II). A vast majority of the patients (88.1%) presented with stages IVA and IVB. Not only does this reflect a poor therapeutic outlook, but also exposes the dire need for programmes focusing on cancer awareness and early detection in the region.
- Negi SS (1991). Himalayan rivers, lakes, and glaciers. Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi, pp 9-31.
- Negi SS (1995). Uttarakhand Land and People. MD Publications, New Delhi, pp 85-105.
- Saklani DP (1998). Ancient communities of the Himalaya. Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi, pp 13-28.
- Siddiqui MS, Chandra R, Aziz A, Suman S (2012). Epidemiology and histopathological spectrum of head and neck cancers in Bihar, a state of Eastern India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 3949-53. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.8.3949
- Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, et al (2014). Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin, 64, 9-29. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21208
- Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al (2010). AJCC cancer staging handbook from the AJCC cancer staging manual, 7th edn. Springer, New York, pp 63-79
- Bhurgri Y, Bhurgri A, Usman A, et al (2006). Epidemiological review of head and neck cancers in Karachi. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 7, 195-200.
- Census, India 2011. Available at HYPERLINK "http://www.census2011.co.in/district.php" District census 2011.
- Chaudhry S, Khan AA, Mirza KM, et al (2008). Estimating the burden of head and neck cancers in the public health sector of Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9, 529-32.
- Elango JK, Gangadharan P, Sumithra S, et al (2006). Trends of head and neck cancers in urban and rural India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 7, 108-12.
- Goyal S, Tiwari VK, Nair KS, Raj S (2014). Risk factors and costs of oral cancer in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 1659-65. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.4.1659
- Gress DM (2002). Your cancer registry: more than just case counts. Oncol Issues, 17, 28-31
- Kulkarni MR (2013). Head and neck cancer burden in India. International Journal of Head and Neck surgery, 4, 29-35. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10001-1132
- Lasrado S, Prabhu P, Kakria A, et al (2012). Clinicopathological profile of head and neck cancers in the Western development region, Nepal: a 4-year snapshot. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 6059-62. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.12.6059
- Mishra A, Meherotra R (2014). Head and neck cancer: global burden and regional trends in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 537-50. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.2.537
- Mohanti BK, Nachiappan P, Pandey RM, et al (2007). Analysis of 2167 head and neck cancer patients' management, treatment compliance and outcomes from a regional cancer centre, Delhi, India. J Laryngol Otol, 121, 49-56.
- Addala L, Pentapati CK, Reddy Thavanati PK, et al (2012). Risk factor profiles of head and neck cancer patients of Andhra Pradesh, India. Indian J Cancer, 49, 215-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-509X.102865
- Bag A, Rawat S, Pant NK, et al (2012) Cancer patterns in Nainital and adjoining districts of Uttarakhand: A one year survey. J Nat Sci Biol Med, 3, 186-8. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.101911
- Weekly Cisplatin-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Treatment of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer: a Single Institution Study vol.16, pp.16, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.16.7309
- Concurrent Chemoradiation with Weekly Cisplatin for the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancers: an Institutional Study on Acute Toxicity and Response to Treatment vol.16, pp.16, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.16.7331
- Survival in Head and Neck Cancers - Results of A Multi-Institution Study vol.17, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.1745