- Volume 15 Issue 13
DOI QR Code
Chronic Exposure to Chlorophenol Related Compounds in the Pesticide Production Workplace and Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
- Zendehdel, Rezvan (Department of Occupational Hygiene, Faculty of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences) ;
- Tayefeh-Rahimian, Raana (Department of Occupational Hygiene, Faculty of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences) ;
- Kabir, Ali (Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, and Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences)
- Published : 2014.07.15
Background: Chlorophenols (CPs) and related phenoxyacetic acids (PAs) are pesticide groups contaminated with highly toxic 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during production. PAs and CPs exposure is associated with risk of cancer, but the situation regarding lung cancer has not been clearly defined. We proposed a meta-analysis of published researches to evaluate relationship between chronic exposure to PAs and CPs in pesticide production workplaces and the risk of lung cancer. Materials and Methods: After searching PubMed, Scopus, Scholar Google, Web of Sciences until August 2013, the association between chronic PAs and CPs exposure in production workplace and lung cancer was studied in 15 cohort studies. The standardized mortality rate (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were collected from the papers. We used random or fixed-effects models, Egger test, funnel plot and meta regression in our analysis. Results: Five papers with six reports were included in the final analysis. The standardized mortality rate for lung cancer from the random model was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.03-1.35, p=0.014) with moderate heterogeneity. Publication bias was not found for included studies in meta-analysis (p=0.9). Conclusions: Our findings has strengthen the evidence of lung cancer from chronic exposure to chlorophenol related compounds (PAs, CPs).
- Viel JF, Daniau C, Goria S, et al (2008). Risk for non Hodgkin's lymphoma in the vicinity of French municipal solid waste incinerators. Environ Health, 7, 51. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-7-51
- Ramlow JM, Spadacene NW, Hoag SR, et al (1996). Mortality in a cohort of pentachlorophenol manufacturing workers, 1940-1989. Am J Ind Med, 30, 180-94. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199608)30:2<180::AID-AJIM9>3.0.CO;2-4
- Sorahan T, Kinlen LJ, Doll R (2005). Cancer risks in a historical UK cohort of benzene exposed workers. Occup Environ Med, 62, 231-6. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2004.015628
- Singh NP, Singh UP, Guan H, Nagarkatti P, Nagarkatti M (2012). Prenatal exposure to TCDD triggers significant modulation of microRNA expression profile in the thymus that affects consequent gene expression. PLoS One, 7, 45054. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045054
- t Mannetje A, McLean D, Cheng S, et al (2005). Mortality in New Zealand workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides and dioxins. Occup Environ Med, 62, 34-40. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2004.015776
- Van Tongeren M, Jimenez AS, Hutchings SJ, et al (2012). Occupational cancer in Britain. Exposure assessment methodology. Br J Cancer, 107, 18-26. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2012.234
- Villeneuve PJ, Parent ME, Harris SA, Johnson KC (2012). Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung cancer in men: evidence from a population-based case-control study in eight Canadian provinces. BMC Cancer, 12, 595. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-12-595
- Walker NJ, Crockett PW, Nyska A, et al (2005). Dose-additive carcinogenicity of a defined mixture of "dioxin-like compounds". Environ Health Perspect, 113, 43-8.
- Walker NJ, Yoshizawa K, Miller RA, et al (2007). Pulmonary lesions in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats following two-year oral treatment with dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Pathol, 35, 880-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/01926230701748396
- Wiklund K, Dich J, Holm LE, Eklund G (1989). Risk of cancer in pesticide applicators in Swedish agriculture. Br J Ind Med, 46, 809-14.
- Zheng RZ, Zhang QH, He YX (2013). Historical long-term exposure to pentachlorophenol causing risk of cancer--a community study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 811-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.2.811
- McBride DI, Burns CJ, Herbison GP, et al (2009). Mortality in employees at a New Zealand agrochemical manufacturing site. Occup Med (Lond), 59, 255-63. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqp030
- Lawson CC, Schnorr TM, Whelan EA, et al (2004). Paternal occupational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and birth outcomes of offspring: birth weight, preterm delivery, and birth defects. Environ Health Perspect, 112, 1403-8. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7051
- Leem JH, Kim HC, Ryu JS, et al (2010). Occupational lung cancer surveillance in South Korea, 2006-2009. Saf Health Work, 1, 134-9. https://doi.org/10.5491/SHAW.2010.1.2.134
- Manuwald U, Velasco Garrido M, Berger J, Manz A, Baur X (2012). Mortality study of chemical workers exposed to dioxins: follow-up 23 years after chemical plant closure. Occup Environ Med, 69, 636-42. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2012-100682
- Miller MD, Marty MA (2010). Impact of environmental chemicals on lung development. Environ Health Perspect, 118, 1155-64. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901856
- Pearce NE, Smith AH, Howard JK, et al (1986). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and exposure to phenoxyherbicides, chlorophenols, fencing work, and meat works employment: a case-control study. Br J Ind Med, 43, 75-83.
- Pesatori AC, Consonni D, Rubagotti M, Grillo P, Bertazzi PA (2009). Cancer incidence in the population exposed to dioxin after the "Seveso accident": twenty years of follow-up. Environ Health, 8, 39. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-8-39
- Burns CJ, Beard KK, Cartmill JB (2001). Mortality in chemical workers potentially exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 1945-94: an update. Occup Environ Med, 58, 24-30. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.58.1.24
- Rim KT (2013). Occupational cancers with chemical exposure and their prevention in Korea: a literature review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3379-91. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.6.3379
- Ruder AM, Yiin JH (2011). Mortality of US pentachlorophenol production workers through 2005. Chemosphere, 83, 851-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.02.064
- Fingerhut MA, Halperin WE, Marlow DA, et al (1991). Cancer mortality in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. N Engl J Med, 324, 212-8. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199101243240402
- Boffetta P, Mundt KA, Adami HO, Cole P, Mandel JS (2011). TCDD and cancer: a critical review of epidemiologic studies. Crit Rev Toxicol, 41, 622-36. https://doi.org/10.3109/10408444.2011.560141
- Bond GG, Wetterstroem NH, Roush GJ, et al (1988). Cause specific mortality among employees engaged in the manufacture, formulation, or packaging of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and related salts. Br J Ind Med, 45, 98-105.
- Collins JJ, Bodner K, Aylward LL, Wilken M, Bodnar CM (2009a). Mortality rates among trichlorophenol workers with exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Am J Epidemiol, 170, 501-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwp153
- Collins JJ, Bodner K, Aylward LL, et al (2009b). Mortality rates among workers exposed to dioxins in the manufacture of pentachlorophenol. J Occup Environ Med, 51, 1212-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181badd4e
- Ganesh B, Sushama S, Monika S, Suvarna P (2011). A case-control study of risk factors for lung cancer in Mumbai, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 357-62.
- Heacock H, Hertzman C, Demers PA, et al (2009). Childhood cancer in the offspring of male sawmill workers occupationally exposed to chlorophenate fungicides. Environ Health Perspect, 108, 499-503.
- Jiang Y, Zhang R, Zheng J, et al (2012). Meta-analysis of 125 rheumatoid arthritis-related single nucleotide polymorphisms studied in the past two decades. PLoS One, 7, 51571. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051571
- Kogevinas M, Becher H, Benn T, et al (1997). Cancer mortality in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins. An expanded and updated international cohort study. Am J Epidemiol, 145, 1061-75. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009069
- Kuschner M (1981). The carcinogenicity of beryllium. Environ Health Perspect, 40, 101-5. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8140101
- Adams SV, Passarelli MN, Newcomb PA (2012). Cadmium exposure and cancer mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cohort. Occup Environ Med, 69, 153-6. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2011-100111
- Ahlawat OP, Gupta P, Kumar S, Sharma DK, Ahlawat K (2010). Bioremediation of fungicides by spent mushroom substrate and its associated microflora. Indian J Microbiol, 50, 390-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-011-0067-8
- Baan R, Grosse Y, Straif K, et al (2009). A review of human carcinogens--Part F: chemical agents and related occupations. Lancet Oncol, 10, 1143-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70358-4
- Beaver LM, Stemmy EJ, Schwartz AM, et al (2009). Lung inflammation, injury, and proliferative response after repetitive particulate hexavalent chromium exposure. Environ Health Perspect, 117, 1896-902. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0900715
- Becher H, Flesch-Janys D, Kauppinen T, et al (1996). Cancer mortality in German male workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides and dioxins. Cancer Causes Control, 7, 312-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00052936
- Body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and prostate cancer: a meta-analysis vol.22, pp.15, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4315-z
- Elevated expression of TGIF is involved in lung carcinogenesis vol.36, pp.12, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13277-015-3615-8
- Association between dioxin and cancer incidence and mortality: a meta-analysis vol.6, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep38012
- Coffee consumption and the risk of lung cancer: an updated meta-analysis of epidemiological studies vol.70, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2015.96
- Pesticides: an update of human exposure and toxicity vol.91, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-016-1849-x