Chronic Exposure to Chlorophenol Related Compounds in the Pesticide Production Workplace and Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

  • Zendehdel, Rezvan (Department of Occupational Hygiene, Faculty of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Tayefeh-Rahimian, Raana (Department of Occupational Hygiene, Faculty of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Kabir, Ali (Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, and Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2014.07.15


Background: Chlorophenols (CPs) and related phenoxyacetic acids (PAs) are pesticide groups contaminated with highly toxic 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during production. PAs and CPs exposure is associated with risk of cancer, but the situation regarding lung cancer has not been clearly defined. We proposed a meta-analysis of published researches to evaluate relationship between chronic exposure to PAs and CPs in pesticide production workplaces and the risk of lung cancer. Materials and Methods: After searching PubMed, Scopus, Scholar Google, Web of Sciences until August 2013, the association between chronic PAs and CPs exposure in production workplace and lung cancer was studied in 15 cohort studies. The standardized mortality rate (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were collected from the papers. We used random or fixed-effects models, Egger test, funnel plot and meta regression in our analysis. Results: Five papers with six reports were included in the final analysis. The standardized mortality rate for lung cancer from the random model was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.03-1.35, p=0.014) with moderate heterogeneity. Publication bias was not found for included studies in meta-analysis (p=0.9). Conclusions: Our findings has strengthen the evidence of lung cancer from chronic exposure to chlorophenol related compounds (PAs, CPs).


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