DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Carcass and body organ characteristics of broilers supplemented with dietary sodium and sodium salts under a phase feeding system

  • Mushtaq, Mirza Muhammad Haroon (Poultry Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Parvin, Rana (Poultry Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Jihyuk (Poultry Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA)
  • Received : 2014.04.07
  • Accepted : 2014.04.07
  • Published : 2014.05.15

Abstract

The effect of sodium and sodium salts on carcass and body organ characteristics of broilers under a four phase feeding program were investigated. A basal diet (0.08% dNa with NaCl) was formulated and one of two sources of dNa ($NaHCO_3$ and $Na_2SO_4$) were supplemented to obtain four different percentages of dNa (0.17, 0.26, 0.35, and 0.44%) for each treatment. There was a linear decrease in dressing percentage (DP) with source ${\times}$ level interaction ($p{\leq}0.001$), while there was a linear increase in breast yield and thigh yield with increasing dNa supplementation ($p{\leq}0.001$). Chicks fed 0.35% $NaHCO_3$ and 0.44% dNa $Na_2SO_4$ supplemental salts had lower abdominal fat ($p{\leq}0.04$). Chicks that received increasing levels of dNa (from 0.17 to 0.44%) showed increasing gizzard weight ($p{\leq}0.02$) and decreasing spleen weight ($p{\leq}0.02$). When both salts were supplemented at 0.26% dNa, the chicks showed their lowest bursa weight ($p{\leq}0.001$). Consequently, chicks at higher dNa showed an increase in breast and thigh meat yield, and increasing capacity of their digestive organ. The higher levels of dNa should be tested with other cations and anions to fully understand acid base homoeostasis.

Keywords

Sodium; Salt; Carcass and body organ characteristics; Phase feeding program; Broiler

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

References

  1. Mongin P: Electrolytes in nutrition. A review of basic principles and practical applications in poultry and swine. Orlando, FL: Proceedings of 3rd Annul International Minerals Conference; 1980:1.
  2. Leeson S, Summers JD: Scott's Nutrition of the Chicken. 4th edition. Guelph, Ontario, Canada: University Books; 2001.
  3. Fletcher T: Natural resources of Pakistan. 2011. http://insider.pk/national/natural-resources-of-pakistan/.
  4. Rondon EOO, Murakami AE, Furlan AC, Garcia J: Exigenciasnutricopmaos de sodio e cloro e estimativa do melhor balance electrolitico da racao para frangos de corte na fasepre-inicial (1-7 dias de idade). Rev Bras Zoot 2000, 29:1162-1166. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982000000400029
  5. Borges SAAV, Fischer da Silva ADA, Meira T, Moura AM, Ostrensky A: Electrolyte balance in broiler growing diets. Intl J Poult Sci 2004, 3:623-628. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2004.623.628
  6. Mushtaq T, Sarwar M, Nawaz H, Mirza MA, Ahmad T: Effect and interactions of dietary sodium and chloride on broiler starter performance (hatching to twenty-eight days of age) under subtropical summer conditions. Poult Sci 2005, 84:1716-1722. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.11.1716
  7. Mushtaq T, Mirza MA, Athar M, Hooge DM, Ahmad T, Ahmad G, Mushtaq MMH, Noreen U: Dietary sodium and chloride for twenty-nine to forty-two-day-old broiler chickens at constant electrolyte balance under subtropical summer conditions. J Appl Poult Res 2007, 16:161-170. https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/16.2.161
  8. Sharma ML, Gangwar PC: Electrolyte changes in the blood plasma of broilers as influenced by cooling during summer. Int'l J Biometeorol 1987, 31(3):211-216. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02188925
  9. Smith MO, Teeter RG: Practical application of potassium chloride and fasting during naturally occurring summer heat stress. Poult Sci 1988, 67(Suppl. 1):36. Abstr.
  10. Borges SA, Fischer da Silva AV, Majorka A, Hooge DM, Cummings KR: Physiological responses of broiler chickens to heat stress and dietary electrolyte balance (sodium plus potassium minus chloride, milliequivalents per kilogram). Poult Sci 2004, 83:1551-1558. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.9.1551
  11. Johnson RJ, Karunajeewa H: The effects of dietary minerals and electrolytes on the growth and physiology of the young chick. J Nutr 1985, 115:1680-1690. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/115.12.1680
  12. Teeter RG, Smith MO, Owens FN, Arp SC, Sangiah S, Breazile JE: Chronic heat stress and respiratory alkalosis, Occurrence and treatment in broiler chicks. Poult Sci 1985, 64:1060-1064. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0641060
  13. Gorman I, Balnave D: Effects of dietary mineral supplementation on the performance and mineral excretions of broilers at high ambient temperatures. Br Poult Sci 1994, 35:563-572. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669408417721
  14. Hooge DM: Practicalities of using dietary sodium and potassium supplements to improve poultry performance. Proceedings of Arkansas Nutrition Conference. 2003:19.
  15. Ahmad T, Sarwar M, Mahr-un-Nisa, Ahsan-ul-Haq, Zia-ul-Hasan: Influence of varying sources of dietary electrolytes on the performance of broilers reared in a high temperature environment. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2005, 120:277-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.02.028
  16. Ahmad T, Sarwar M: Dietary electrolyte balance, Implications in heat stressed broilers. Worlds Poult Sci J 2006, 62:638-653. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043933906001188
  17. Ruiz-Lopez B, Austic RE: The effects of selected minerals on acid-base balance of growing chicks. Poult Sci 1993, 72:1054-1062. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0721054
  18. Whiting TS, Andrews LD, Stamps L: Effects of sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride drinking water supplementation. 1. Performance and exterior carcass quality of broilers grown under thermoneutral or cyclic heat-stress conditions. Poult Sci 1991, 70:53-9. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0700053
  19. Pourreza J, Edriss MA: The effects of high vs. normal temperatures on the physical characteristics of the broilers carcass. J Agric Sci Technol 1992, 1:35-41.
  20. Karunajeewa H, Barr DA, Fox M: The effects of high vs. normal temperatures on the growth performance of broiler chickens. Br Poult Sci 1986, 27:601-612. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668608416919
  21. Borges SA, Ariki J, Martins JCL, De-Moraes VMB: Potassium chloride supplementation in heat stressed broilers. Rev Bras Zool 1999, 28:313-319. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35981999000200014
  22. Hubbard: Broiler Management Guide. Duluth, GA: Hubbard LLC; 2004.
  23. AOAC: Official Methods of Analysis. 18th edition. Gaithersburg, MD: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2005.
  24. Lacroix RL, Keeney DR, Welsh LM: Potentiometric titration of chloride in plant tissue extracts using the chloride ion electrode. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 1970, 1:1-6.
  25. NRC: Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9 Revisedth edition. Washington, DC: National Academic Press; 1994.
  26. Han Y, Baker DH: Digestible lysine requirement of male and female broiler chicks during the period three to six weeks post-hatching. Poult Sci 1994, 73:1739-45. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0731739
  27. Suresh BN, Reddy BSV, Manjunatha PBH, Jaishankar N: Carcass Characteristics of Broilers Fed Sugarcane Press Residue with Biotechnological Agents. Int J Poult Sci 2009, 8(7):671-676. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2009.671.676
  28. Borges SA, Fischer da Silva AV, Ariki J, Hooge DM, Cummings KR: Dietary electrolyte balance for broiler chickens under moderately high ambient temperatures and relative humidities. Poult Sci 2003, 82:301-308. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/82.2.301
  29. Socha MT, Ensley SM, Tomlinson DJ, Johnson B: Variability of water consumption and potential impact on animal performance. Proceedings of California Animal Nutrition Conference; 2002:81-91.
  30. Borges SA, Fischer da Silva AV, Ariki J, Hooge DM, Cummings KR: Dietary electrolyte balance for broiler chickens exposed to thermoneutral or heat−stress environments. Poult Sci 2003, 82:482-435.
  31. Good B: Water quality affects poultry production. Poult Dig 1985, 44(517):108-109.
  32. Grizzle JT, Armbrust MB, Saxton A: Water quality I, The effect of water nitrate and pH on broiler growth performance. J Appl Poult Res 1996, 5:330-336. https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/5.4.330
  33. Water and Electrolytes (& Iodine), Sec. 4. In Animal Nutrition Handbook. 2 revth edition. Edited by Chiba LI. Auburn University Press, ALabama; 2009.
  34. Carew L, Mcmurtry J, Alster F: Effects of lysine deficiencies on plasma levels of thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factors I and II, liver and body weights, and feed intake in growing chickens. Poult Sci 2005, 84:1045-1050. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.7.1045
  35. Bailey CA, Stipanovic RD, Ziehr MS, Haq AU, Sattar M, Kubena LF, Kim HL, Vieira RD: Cottonseed with a high (+) to (-)-gossypol enantiomer ratio favorable to broiler production. J Agric Food Chem 2000, 48:5692-5695. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000211n
  36. Farran MT, Halaby WS, Barbour GW, Uwayjan MG, Sleiman FT, Ashkarian VM: Effects of feeding ervil (Viciaervilia) seeds soaked in water or acetic acid on performance and internal organ size of broilers and production and egg quality of laying hens. Poult Sci 2005, 84:1723-1728. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.11.1723