Comparison of the Effects of Blending and Juicing on the Phytochemicals Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Typical Korean Kernel Fruit Juices

  • Pyo, Young-Hee (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women's University) ;
  • Jin, Yoo-Jeong (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women's University) ;
  • Hwang, Ji-Young (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women's University)
  • Received : 2014.02.25
  • Accepted : 2014.05.26
  • Published : 2014.06.30


Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices.


Supported by : Sungshin Women's University


  1. Burda S, Oleszek W. 2001. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of flavonoids. J Agric Food Chem 49: 2774-2779.
  2. Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. 2005. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 53: 1841-1856.
  3. Lee JH, Lee YB, Seo WD, Kang ST, Lim JW, Cho KM. 2012. Comparative studies of antioxidant activities and nutritional constituents of persimmon juice (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Gapjubaekmok). Prev Nutr Food Sci 17: 141-151.
  4. Wasila H, Li X, Liu L, Ahmad I, Ahmad S. 2013. Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine. J Food Sci 78: C1166-C1172.
  5. Scherer R, Rybka ACP, Ballus CA, Meinhart AD, Filho JT, Godoy HT. 2012. Validation of a HPLC method for simultaneous determination of main organic acids in fruits and juices. Food Chem 135: 150-154.
  6. Singleton VL, Rossi JA Jr. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic 16: 144-158.
  7. Jia Z, Tang M, Wu J. 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 64: 555-559.
  8. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWTFood Sci Technol 28: 25-30.
  9. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239: 70-76.
  10. Davey MW, Van Montagu M, Inze D, Sanmartin M, Kanellis A, Smirnoff N, Benzie IJJ, Strain JJ, Favell D, Fletcher J. 2000. Plant L-ascorbic acid: chemistry, function, metabolism, bioavailability and effects of processing. J Sci Food Agric 80: 825-860.<825::AID-JSFA598>3.0.CO;2-6
  11. Dillard CJ, German JB. 2000. Phytochemicals: nutraceuticals and human health. J Sci Food Agric 80: 1744-1756.<1744::AID-JSFA725>3.0.CO;2-W
  12. Prior RL, Cao G. 2000. Antioxidant phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables: diet and health implications. HortScience 35: 588-592.
  13. Bravo L. 1998. Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev 56: 317-333.
  14. Kader AA. 2008. Flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. J Sci Food Agric 88: 1863-1868.
  15. Fernandez-Fernandez R, Lopez-Martinez JC, Romero-Gonzalez R, Martinez-Vidal JL, Flores MIA, Frenich AG. 2010. Simple LC−MS determination of citric and malic acids in fruits and vegetables. Chromatographia 72: 55-62.
  16. Tzulker R, Glazer I, Holland D, Aviram M, Amir R. 2007. Antioxidant activity, polyphenol content, and related compounds in different fruit juices and homogenates prepared from 29 different pomegranate accessions. J Agric Food Chem 55: 9559-9570.
  17. Rajasekar D, Akoh CC, Martino KG, MacLean DD. 2012. Physico-chemical characteristics of juice extracted by blender and mechanical press from pomegranate cultivars grown in Georgia. Food Chem 133: 1383-1393.
  18. Uckoo RM, Jayaprakasha GK, Balasubramaniam VM, Patil BS. 2012. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad) phytochemicals composition is modulated by household processing techniques. J Food Sci 77: C921-C926.
  19. Ma JN, Wang SL, Zhang K, Wu ZG, Hattori M, Chen GL, Ma CM. 2012. Chemical components and antioxidant activity of the peels of commercial apple-shaped pear (fruit of Pyrus pyrifolia cv. pingguoli). J Food Sci 77: C1097-C1102.
  20. Gardner PT, White TAC, McPhail DB, Duthie GG. 2000. The relative contributions of vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolics to the antioxidant potential of fruit juices. Food Chem 68: 471-474.
  21. Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH. 2002. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. J Agric Food Chem 50: 7449-7454.
  22. Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, Couillard C. 2006. Favourable impact of low-calorie cranberry juice consumption on plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in men. Br J Nutr 96: 357-364.
  23. Gunathilake KDPP. 2012. A fruit-based functional beverage designed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. MSc Thesis. Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Cited by

  1. Haw. Attenuates Acetic Acid–Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats pp.1939-022X, 2018,