- Volume 3 Issue 2
Tall fescue is commonly well-adapted for low maintain area because of its wear resistance, deep root system, and drought tolerances. Deep and infrequent irrigation refers to applying large amounts of irrigation, 1.3 to 2.5 cm or more, in a single irrigation event. Light and frequent irrigation is commonly used with small amounts of water, 0.3 to 0.6 cm, every day or every other day. N use for turfgrass management is often unnoticed for water management. The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation frequency and N rates for tall fescue growth. The three irrigation treatments were no irrigation (precipitation only), 0.5 cm applied every other day, and 1.8 cm applied once a week at one irrigation event. The nitrogen (N) treatments were the low, medium, and high N rate treatments. The low, medium, and high N treatments were applied over 2, 4, and 6 applications, respectively. If high main maintenance of tall fescue is not important and water source is limited, irrigation is not necessary and, the
Irrigation frequency;Nitrogen;Tall fescue;Water
- Rochefort, S., Desjardins, Y., Shetar, D.J. and Brodeur J. 2007. Establishment and survival of endophyte-infected and uninfected tall fescue and perennial ryegrass overseeded into existing Kentucky bluegrass lawns in northeastern North America. Hort Sci. 42(3):682-687.
- SAS Institute Inc. 2001. The SAS system release 8.2 for Windows. SAS Inst., Cary, NC, US.
- Su, K., Bremer, D.J., Keeley, S.J. and Fry, J.D. 2007. Effects of high temperature and drought on a hybrid bluegrass compared with Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue. Crop Sci. 47:2152-2161. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2006.12.0781
- Turgeon, A.J. 1999. Turfgrass management. Prentice-Hall Co., Reston, VA, US.
- Watkins, E., Fei, S., Gardner, D., Stier, J., Bughrara, S. et al. 2011. Low-input turfgrass species for the north central united states. Online. Applied Turfgrass Sci. ATS-2011-0126-02-RS.
- Fu, J., Fry, J. and Huang, H. 2007. Tall fescue rooting as affected by deficit irrigation. Hort Sci. 42:688-691.
- Fry, J. and Butler, J. 1989. Responses of tall and hard fescue to deficit irrigation. Crop Sci. 29:1536-1541. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1989.0011183X002900060045x
- Fry, J. and Huang, B. 2004. Applied turfgrass science and physiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, US.
- Fu, J., Fry, J. and Huang, H. 2004. Minimum water requirements of four turfgrasses in the transition zone. Hort Sci. 39:1740-1744.
- Fu, J. and Dernoeden, P.H. 2008. Carbohydrate metabolism in creeping bentgrass as influenced by two summer irrigation practices. J. Am. Soc. Hort Sci. 133:678-683.
- Johnson, P.G. 2003. The influence of frequent or infrequent irrigation on turfgrasses in the cool-arid west. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online. March 15. 2(6):1-8.
- Jordan, J., White, R., Vietor, D., Hale, T., Thomas, J. and Engelke, M. 2003. Effect of irrigation frequency on turf quality, shoot density, and root length density of five bentgrass cultivars. Crop Sci. 43:282-287. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2003.2820
- Levitt, J. 1980. Responses of plants to environmental stresses. Vol.ii. Academic Press, NY, US.
- Madison, J. and Horgan, R. 1962. Extraction of soil moisture by Merion and other cultural operations. Agron. J. 54:157-160. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1962.00021962005400020020x
- NTEP. 2010. National creeping bentgrass test [Online]. Available at www.ntep.org. NTEP, Beltsville, MD, US.
- Qian, Y. and Fry, J.D. 1997. Rooting and drought avoidance of warm-season turfgrasses and tall fescue in Kansas. Crop Sci. 37:905-910. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1997.0011183X003700030034x
- Aronson, L.J., Gold, A.J., Hull, R.J. and Cisar, J.L. 1987. Evapotranspiration of cool-season turfgrasses in the humid Northeast. Agron. J. 79:901-905. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1987.00021962007900050029x
- Beard, J.B. 1973. Turfgrass: Science and culture. Prentice-Hall, Eagle-wood Cliffs, NJ, US.
- Beard, J.B. 1989. Turfgrass water stress: Drought resistance components, physiological mechanisms, and species-genotype diversity, p. 23-28. In: H. Takatoh (ed.), Proc. 6th Intl. Turf. Sci. Soc., Jpn. Soc. Turf. Sci. Tokyo, Japan.
- Beard, J.B. and Kim, K.S. 1989. Low-water-use turfgrasses. USGA Green Sect. Rec. 27:12-13.
- Bennett, O. and Doss, B. 1960. Effect of soil moisture level on root distribution of cool-season species. Agron. J. 52:204-207. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1960.00021962005200040008x
- Bowman, D.C. 2003. Daily vs. periodic nitrogen addition affects growth and tissue nitrogen in perennial ryegrass turf. Crop Sci. 43:631-638. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2003.0631
- Campbell, C.A., Davidson, H.R. and Warder, F.G. 1977. Effects of fertilizer N and soil moisture on growth, N content, and moisture use by spring wheat. Canadian J. Soil Sci. 57:289-310. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjss77-035
- Cereti, C.F., Rossini, F. and Ruggeri, R. 2009. Reduction of irrigation on tall fescue and bermudagrass turfs in a Mediterranean environment. Intl. Turf Soc. Res. J. 11: 9-18.
- Christians, N.E. 2011. Fundamentals of turfgrass management. 4th ed. Wiley & Sons Inc. Hoboken, NJ, US.
- Devitt, D.A., Morris, R.L. and Bowman. D.C. 1992. Evapotranspiration, crop coefficients, and leaching fractions of irrigated desert turfgrass systems. Agron. J. 84:717-723. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1992.00021962008400040033x
- Assessing evidence on the agronomic and environmental impacts of turfgrass irrigation management vol.204, pp.4, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/jac.12265