Dietary Patterns in Relation to Prostate Cancer in Iranian Men: A Case-Control Study

  • Askari, Faezeh (Community Nutrition Department, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (WHO Collaborating Center)) ;
  • Parizi, Mehdi Kardoust (Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Jessri, Mahsa (Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto) ;
  • Rashidkhani, Bahram (Community Nutrition Department, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (WHO Collaborating Center))
  • Published : 2014.03.01


Background: Prostate cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among males in economically developed countries. Among the several risk factors that have been suggested, only age, ethnicity, diabetes, and family history of prostate cancer are well-established and primary prevention of this disease is limited. Prior studies had shown that dietary intake could be modified to reduce cancer risk. We conducted a hospital-based, casecontrol study to examine the association between dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty patients with prostate cancer and a hundred controls underwent face-to-face interviews. Factor analysis was used to determine the dietary patterns. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: We defined two major dietary patterns in this population: 'western diet'(high in sweets and desserts, organ meat, snacks, tea and coffee, French fries, salt, carbonated drinks, red or processed meat) and 'healthy diet' (high in legumes, fish, dairy products, fruits and fruit juice, vegetables, boiled potatoes, whole cereal and egg). Both Healthy and western pattern scores were divided into two categories (based on medians). Higher scores on Healthy pattern was marginally significantly related to decreased risk of prostate cancer (above median vs below median, OR =0.4, 95%CI=0.2-1.0). An increased risk of prostate cancer was observed with the higher scores on the Western pattern (above median vs below median, OR=4.0, 95%CI=1.5-11.0). Conclusions: The results of this study suggested that diet might be associated with prostate cancer among Iranian males.


  1. Zhou X-F, Ding Z-S, Liu N-B (2013). Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: evidence from 132,192 subjects. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4131-4.
  2. Walker M, Aronson K J, King W (2005). Dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer in Ontario, Canada. Int J Cancer, 116, 592-8.
  3. Sugiyama Y, Masumori N, Fukuta F, et al (2013). Influence of isoflavone intake and equol-producing intestinal flora on prostate cancer risk. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 1-4.
  4. Tseng M, Breslow R A, Devellis R F, Ziegler R G (2004). Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow-up Study cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 13, 71-7.
  5. Vlajinac H, Ilic M, Marinkovic J, Sipetic S (2010). Nutrition and prostate cancer. J BUON, 15, 698-703.
  6. Willet W (1998). Nutritional epidemiology, New York, Oxford University Press.
  7. Wirfalt E, Hedblad B, Gullberg B (2001). Food patterns and components of the metabolic syndrome in men and women: a cross-sectional study within the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Am J Epidemiol, 154, 1150-9.
  8. Kim Jo, Mueller CW (1998). Factor Analysis: Statistical Methods and Practical Issues, New York: Oxford University Press.
  9. Jacobs D R JR, Steffen L M (2003). Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy. Am J Clin Nutr, 78, 508-13.
  10. Jacques P F, Tucker K L (2001). Are dietary patterns useful for understanding the role of diet in chronic disease? Am J Clin Nutr, 73, 1-2.
  11. Jemal A, Bray F, Center M M, et al (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 69-90.
  12. Lucenteforte E, Garavello W, Bosetti C, et al (2008). Diet diversity and the risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer. Int J Cancer, 123, 2397-400.
  13. Masko E M, Allott E H, Freedland S J (2012). The relationship between nutrition and prostate cancer: is more always better? Eur Urol, 63, 810-20.
  14. Newby P K, Muller D, Hallfrisch J, Andres R, Tucker K L (2004). Food patterns measured by factor analysis and anthropometric changes in adults. Am J Clin Nutr, 80, 504-13.
  15. Sadjadi A, Nooraie M, Ghorbani A (2007). The incidence of prostate cancer in Iran: results of a population-based cancer registry. Arch Iran Med, 10, 481-5.
  16. Safari A, Shariff Z M, Kandiah M, Rashidkhani B, Fereidooni F (2013). Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer in Tehran Province: a case-control study. BMC Public Health, 13, 222.
  17. Salem S, Salahi M, Mohseni M (2011). Major dietary factors and prostate cancer risk: a prospective multicenter case-control study. Nutr Cancer, 63, 21-7.
  18. Schwartz G G (2013). Vitamin d, sunlight, and the epidemiology of prostate cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 13, 45-57.
  19. De Stefani E, Ronco A L, Deneo pellegrini H, et al (2010). Dietary patterns and risk of advanced prostate cancer: a principal component analysis in Uruguay. Cancer Cause Control, 21, 1009-16.
  20. Chia S-E, Wong K-Y, Cheng C, Lau W, Tan P-H (2012). (2013). Sun exposure and the risk of prostate cancer in the Singapore Prostate Cancer Study: a case-control Study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 3179-85.
  21. Clinton S K, Giovannucci E (1998). Diet, nutrition, and prostate cancer. Annu Rev Nutr, 18, 413-40.
  22. Davoodi H, Esmaeili S, Mortazavian A (2013). Effects of milk and milk products consumption on cancer: a review. Compr Rev Food Sci F, 12, 249-64.
  23. Esfahani FH, Asghari G, Mirmiran P, Azizi F (2010). Reproducibility and relative validity of food group intake in a food frequency questionnaire developed for the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. J Epidemiol, 20, 150-8.
  24. Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Levi F, et al (2006). Onion and garlic use and human cancer. Am J Clin Nutr, 84, 1027-32.
  25. Ghaffarpour M, Houshiar Rad A, Kianfar H (1999). The Manual for Household Measures,Cooking Yields Factors and Edible Portion of foods. Agriculture Sciences Press, 243-9.
  26. Ghafoor A, Jemal A, Cokkinides V, et al (2002). Cancer statistics for African Americans. CA Cancer J Clin, 52, 326-41.
  27. Grant W B (2004). A multicountry ecologic study of risk and risk reduction factors for prostate cancer mortality. Eur Urol, 45, 271-9.
  28. Hu F B, Rimm E, Smith Warner S A, et al (1999). Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a foodfrequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr, 69, 243-9.
  29. Ambrosini G L, Fritschi L, de Klerk N H, Mackerras D, Leavy J (2008). Dietary patterns identified using factor analysis and prostate cancer risk: a case control study in Western Australia. Ann Epidemiol, 18, 364-70.
  30. Chan J M, Stampfer M J, Giovannucci E L (1998). What causes prostate cancer? a brief summary of the epidemiology. Semin Cancer Biol, 8, 263-73.

Cited by

  1. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Relation to Prostate Cancer in Iranian Men: A Case-Control Study vol.15, pp.13, 2014,
  2. Dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis vol.31, pp.8, 2014,
  3. Evaluation of Environmental Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in a Population of Iranian Patients vol.15, pp.24, 2015,
  4. Conditional PTEN-deficient Mice as a Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention Model vol.16, pp.5, 2015,
  5. Significant Association of Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA Racemase Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Prostate Cancer: a Meta-Analysis vol.16, pp.5, 2015,
  6. Temporal Variations of Dietary Habits in a High-Risk Area for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: a Population-Based Study from Northern Iran vol.16, pp.6, 2015,
  7. Possible role of diet in cancer: systematic review and multiple meta-analyses of dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, and cancer risk vol.75, pp.6, 2017,
  8. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer? vol.103, pp.1, 2015,
  9. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis vol.8, pp.10, 2016,
  10. Western Dietary Pattern, But not Mediterranean Dietary Pattern, Increases the Risk of Prostate Cancer pp.1532-7914, 2018,
  11. Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in Japanese: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) vol.29, pp.6, 2018,
  12. Rising Cancer Incidence and Role of the Evolving Diet in Kenya pp.1532-7914, 2019,