DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Fallacies about Water Pipe Use in Turksih University Students - What Might Be the Consequences?

  • Published : 2014.03.01

Abstract

Background: The popularity of the narghile waterpipe, also referred to as hookah, shisha or hubble-bubble has increased tremendously during the past few decades. The aim of this study was to expose perception of narghile among a representative sample of university students in Sakarya University campus. Materials and Methods: Written approval was taken from the local education authority. An anonymous questionnaire which was prepared by the investigators and contained 17 questions was administered. Nine of the questions were related to socio-demographic characteristics and eight were related to the students harm perceptions about waterpipe. A total of 1,320 questionnaries were received and after preliminary evaluation 1,255 (95.7%) were found to be suitable for evaluation. The data was evaluated in SPSS program by using percentages and averages. Results: The $mean{\pm}SD$ age of the students was $20.8{\pm}2.29$ years (min 18, max 32). There were 864 (68.8%) females and 391 (31.2%) males. A total of 6.3 % of the students (n=79) believed that waterpipe is not harmful because its smoke does not burn the lungs. Almost one-third (n=318) think that the carcinogenic chemicals are filtered while waterpipe smoke passes from the water; 12.1 % of the students (n=152) checked "true" for the statement of "waterpipe smoke contains no nicotine". It is seen that 14.0 % of the students (n=176) think waterpipe with fruit/aroma is healthier than plain waterpipe. Conclusions: As a result of this study, it is found out that a substantial number of university students have false beliefs on harmful effects of waterpipe smoking.

References

  1. Abughosh S, Wu I-H, Rajan S, Peters JR, Essien J (2012). Waterpipe Smoking Among Students in One US University: Predictors of an Intention to Quit. J Am College Hlth, 60, 528-35 https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2012.718018
  2. Akl EA, Gaddam S, Gunukula SK, et al (2010). The effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes: a systematic review. Int J Epidemiol, 39, 834-57. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyq002
  3. Akl EA, Gunukula SK, Aleem S, et al (2011). The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 11, 244. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-244
  4. Al Rashidi M, Shihadeh A, Saliba NA (2008). Volatile aldehydes in the mainstream smoke of the narghilewaterpipe. Food Chem. Toxicol, 46, 3546-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.09.007
  5. Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV (2012). Shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5627-32. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.11.5627
  6. Al-Naggar RA, Saghir FSA (2011). Water pipe (shisha) smoking and associated factors among Malaysian university students. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 3041-7.
  7. Blank MD, Brown WK, Goodman RJ, Eissenberg T (2013). An Observational Study of Group WaterpipeUse in a Natural Environment. Nicotine & Tobacco Research Advance Access published August, 13, 7-1.
  8. Chaaya M, El-Roueiheb Z, Chemaitelly H, et al (2004). Argileh smoking among university students: a new tobacco epidemic. Nicotine Tob Res, 6, 457-63. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200410001696628
  9. Chaaya M, Jabbour S, El-Roueiheb Z, Chameitelly H (2004). Attitudes, and practices of argileh(waterpipe or hubblebubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in Lebanon. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 1821-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.04.008
  10. Chaouachi K (2009). Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), A critical review of the relevant literature and the public health consequences. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 6, 798-84. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph6020798
  11. Cogliano V, Grosse Y, Baan R, et al (2004). Advice on formaldehyde and glycol ethers. Lancet Oncol, 5, 528. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(04)01562-1
  12. Eissenberg T, Ward KD, Smith-Simone S, Maziak W (2008). Waterpipe tobacco smoking on a U.S. College campus: prevalence and correlates. J Adolesc Health, 42, 526-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.10.004
  13. Griffiths MA, Harmon TR, Gilly MC (2011). Hubble Bubble Trouble: The Need for Education About and Regulation of Hookah Smoking, Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 30, 119-32. https://doi.org/10.1509/jppm.30.1.119
  14. Hassoy H, Ergin I, Davas A, Durusoy R, Karababa OA (2011). Determining the factors effecting the cigarette, narghile and hand- rolled tobacco smoking among medical technology vocational training school students and evaluation of their opinions about starting and continuing with their habits of smoking. Respiratory J, 13, 91-9.
  15. Jarrett T, Blosnich J, Trowek C, Horn K (2012). Hookah Use Among U.S. College Students: Results From the National College Health Assessment II. Nicotine Tob Res, 14, 1145-53. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nts003
  16. John U, Riedel J, Rumpf HJ, Hapke U, Meyer C (2006). Associations of perceived work strain with nicotinedependence in a community sample. Occup Environ Med, 63, 207-11. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2005.020966
  17. Kandela P (2000). Nargile smoking keeps Arabs in Wonderland. Lancet, 356, 1175. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)72871-3
  18. Knishkowy B, Amitai Y (2005). Water-pipe (narghile) smoking: an emerging health risk behavior. Pediatrics, 116, 113-9. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-2173
  19. Koul PA, Hajni MR, Sheikh MA, et al (2011). Hookah smoking and lung cancer in the Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 519-24.
  20. Maziak W (2013). The waterpipe: An emerging global risk for cancer. Cancer Epidemiol, 37, 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2012.10.013
  21. Maziak W, Eissenberg T, Ward KD (2005). Patterns of waterpipe use and dependence: implications for intervention development. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 80, 173-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2004.10.026
  22. Maziak W, Tabbah K (2005). Smoking among adults in Syria: proxy reporting by 13-14 year olds. Public Health, 119, 578-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2004.07.012
  23. Maziak W, Ward KD, AfifiSoweid RA, EissenbergT (2004). Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe: are-emerging strain in a global epidemic. Tob Control, 13, 327-33. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2004.008169
  24. Maziak W, Ward KD, Eissenberg T (2004). Factors related to frequency of narghile (waterpipe) use: the first insights on tobacco dependence in narghile users. Drug Alcohol Depend, 76, 101-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.04.007
  25. Munckhof WJ, Konstantinos A, Wamsley M, Mortlock M, Gilpin C (2003). A cluster of tubercu- losis associated with use of a marijuana water-pipe. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 7, 860-5.
  26. Noonan D, Kulbok PA (2009). New tobacco trends: waterpipe (hookah) smoking and implications for healthcare providers. J Am Acad Nurse Pract, 21, 258-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7599.2009.00402.x
  27. Nuwayhid IA, Yamout B, Azar G, Kambris MA (1998).Narghile (hubble-bubble) smoking, low birth weight, and other pregnancy outcomes. Am J Epidemiol, 148, 375-83. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009656
  28. Poyrazoglu S, Sarli S, Gencer Z, Gunay O (2010). Waterpipe (narghile) smoking among medical and non-medical university students in Turkey.Ups. J Med Sci, 115, 210-6.
  29. Primack BA, Aronson JD, Agarwal AA (2006). An old custom: a new threat to tobacco control, (Letter). J Am Public Health Assoc, 96, 1339.
  30. Primack BA, Sidani J, Agarwal AA, et al (2008). Prevalence of and associations with waterpipetobacco smoking among U.S. university students. Ann Behav Med, 36, 81-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-008-9047-6
  31. Quenqua, D (2011). Putting a crimp in the hookah. New York Times. May 2011.
  32. Rastam S, Li F, Fouad MF, et al (2010).Water pipe smoking and human oral cancers. Medical Hypotheses, 74, 457-9 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2009.10.013
  33. Shihadeh A and Saleh R (2005). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, “tar”, and nicotine in the mainstream smoke aerosol of the narghilewaterpipe. Food Chem Toxicol, 43, 655-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.12.013
  34. Shihadeh A, Salman R, Jaroudi et al (2012). Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, ''tar'' and nicotine yields. Food Chem Toxicol, 50, 1494-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.02.041
  35. Smith-Simone S, Maziak W, Ward KD, Eissenberg T (2008). Waterpipe tobacco smoking: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior in two U.S. samples. Nicotine Tob Res, 10, 393-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200701825023
  36. Subasi N, Bilir N, Ilhan E, et al (2005). Knowledge, attitude and behaviors of narghile smokers on narghile smoking. Turk Thoracic J, 6, 137-43.
  37. Sutfin LE, McCoy PT, Reboussin AB, et al (2011).Prevalence and Correlates of WaterpipeTobacco Smoking by College Students in North Carolina. Drug Alcohol Depend, 115, 131-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.01.018
  38. Ministry of Health leaflet (2013). Protect Your Air: NArghile is More Dangerous Than Cigarette Smoking. http://www.havanikoru.org.tr/dosya/Docs_Mevzuata_iliskin_Belgeler/NargileBrosur.pdf
  39. Tamim H, Terro A, Kassem H, et al (2003). Tobacco use by university students, Lebanon, 2001. Addiction, 98, 933-9. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00413.x
  40. Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Gray JN, et al (2007). Characteristics of U.S. waterpipe users: a preliminary report. Nicotine Tob Res, 9, 1339-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200701705019
  41. Wolfram RM, Chehne F, Oguogho A, Sinzinger H (2003). Narghile (water pipe) smoking influences platelet function and (iso-) eicosanoids. Life Sci, 74, 47-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2003.06.020

Cited by

  1. Is Waterpipe Smoking Becoming Increasingly Widespread Among the Youth? vol.15, pp.18, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.18.8005
  2. Perceptions of Turkish University Students about the Effects of Water Pipe Smoking on Health vol.16, pp.11, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.11.4615
  3. Systematic Review on International Practices in Controlling Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking vol.16, pp.9, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.9.3659
  4. Water pipe smoking and dermatologic consequences vol.29, pp.8, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.12984
  5. Turkish Adolescent Perceptions about the Effects of Water Pipe Smoking on their Health vol.16, pp.18, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.18.8645
  6. Waterpipe smoking among secondary school students in Hong Kong vol.61, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-016-0796-x