DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effectiveness of an Intervention Program on Knowledge of Oral Cancer among the Youth of Jazan, Saudi Arabia

  • Published : 2014.03.01

Abstract

Background: The study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Saudi Arabia (KSA), aiming to analyze the effectiveness of an intervention program in improving the knowledge of oral cancer among the youth. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,051 young Saudis (57% males and 43% females with a mean age of $20.4{\pm}1.98$) were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. Knowledge assessment was accomplished using a closed-ended questionnaire which was subjected to reliability tests. Prevalence of risk factors in relation to gender was analyzed using the chi-squared test. Effectiveness was calculated by comparing the pre- and post-intervention means, using the two-tailed paired t-test. Multiple logistic regression was employed in order to determine factors associated with awareness of risk habits, signs/symptoms and prevention of oral cancer. The significance level in this study was set at 0.05. Results: Females were seen to be more into the habit of sheesha smoking (3.3% rather than the use of other forms of risk factors. Prevalence of diverse risk factors such as cigarette smoking (20%), sheesha (15.3%), khat (27%) and shamma (9%) was seen among males. Gender and the use of modifiable risk factors among the study sample were significantly (p<0.001) associated with effectiveness of the intervention. The intervention program was highly effective (p<0.001) in improving the knowledge of oral cancer among the youth in Jazan, KSA. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and gender are the most significant factors affecting knowledge. Conclusions: The study gives a direction for further public health initiatives in this oral cancer prone region.

References

  1. Rao SVK, Mejia G, Roberts-Thomson K, Logan R (2013). Epidemiology of oral cancer in Asia in the past decade - an update (2000-2012). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5567-77. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.10.5567
  2. Pisani P, Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J (1999). Estimates of the worldwide mortality from 25 cancers in 1990. Int J Cancer, 83, 870-3. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19991210)83:6<870::AID-IJC35>3.0.CO;2-9
  3. Powe BD, Finnie R (2004). Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors among African Americans: do nurses have a role? Oncol Nurs Forum, 31, 785-91. https://doi.org/10.1188/04.ONF.785-791
  4. Reed SG, Duffy NG, Walters KC, et al (2005). Oral cancer knowledge and experience: a survey of South Carolina medical students in 2002. J Cancer Educ, 20, 136-42. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430154jce2003_6
  5. Sankaranarayanan R, Dinshaw K, Nene B M, et al (2006). Cervical and oral cancer screening in India. J Med Screen, 13, 535-8.
  6. UK, C R (2013). CancerStats report lip and oral cavity cancer. London, UK: Cancer Research UK. URL: http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerstats/types/oral/incidence/uk-oral-cancer-incidence-statistics, Last updated on October, 2013.
  7. Warnakalasuriya KA, Harris C K, Scarrot DM, et al (1999). An alarming lack of public awareness towards oral cancer. BDJ, 187, 319-22.
  8. Warnakulasuriya S (2009). Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol, 45, 309-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.06.002
  9. Warnakulasuriya S, Sutherland G, Scully C (2005). Tobacco, oral cancer and treatment of dependence. Oral Oncol, 41, 244-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2004.08.010
  10. Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH, (1994). Psychometric theory. J Psychoeducational Asssessment, 17, 275-80.
  11. Llewellyn CD, Linklater K, Bell J, Johnson NW, et al (2004): a case-control study. Oral Oncol, 40, 304-313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2003.08.015
  12. Lumerman H, Freedman P, Kerpel S (1995). Oral epithelial dysplasia and the development of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 79, 321-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1079-2104(05)80226-4
  13. Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Wesley R et al (1995). Evaluation of mouth self-examination in the control of oral cancer. Br J Cancer, 71, 397-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1995.81
  14. Pakfetrat A, Falaki F, Esmaily HO, Shabestari S (2010). Oral cancer knowledge among patients referred to Mashhad Dental School, Iran. Arch Iran Med, 13, 543-8.
  15. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P, et al (2005). Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 74-108. https://doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.55.2.74
  16. Patton LL, Agans R, ELTER JR, et al (2004). Oral cancer knowledge and examination experiences among north carolina adults. J Public Hlth Dent, 64, 173-80. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-7325.2004.tb02748.x
  17. Peker I, Alkurt MT (2010). Public awareness level of oral cancer in a group of dental patients. J Contemporary Dental Practice, 11, 49-56.
  18. Petersen PE (2005). Strengthening the prevention of oral cancer: the WHO perspective. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiol, 33, 397-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2005.00251.x
  19. Petersen PE (2009). Oral cancer prevention and control - The approach of the World Health Organization. J Oral Oncol, 45, 454-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.05.023
  20. Petti S (2009). Lifestyle risk factors for Oral cancer. J Oral Oncol, 45, 340-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.05.018
  21. Petti S, Scully C (2007). Oral cancer knowledge and awareness: Primary and secondary effects of an information leaflet. Oral Oncology, 43, 408-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2006.04.010
  22. Elango JK, Sundaram KR, Gangadharan P, et al (2009). Factors affecting oral cancer awareness in a high-risk population in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 627-30.
  23. Cancela M DE C, Voti L, Guerra-YI M, et al (2010). Oral cavity cancer in developed and in developing countries: Populationbased incidence. Head Neck, 32, 357-67.
  24. Cannick GF, Horowitz AM, Drury TF, et al (2005). Assessing oral cancer knowledge among dental students in South Carolina. J Am Dent Assoc, 136, 373-8. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.2005.0180
  25. Cogliano V, Straif K, Baan R, et al (2004). Smokeless tobacco and tobacco-related nitrosamines. Lancet Oncol, 5, 708. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(04)01633-X
  26. Elangoa K J, Anandkrishnan N, Suresha A, et al (2011). Mouth self-examination to improve oral cancer awareness and early detection in a high-risk population. Oral Oncol, 47, 620-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2011.05.001
  27. Ghani W M N, Doss JG, Jamaluddin M, et al (2013). Oral cancer awareness and its determinants among a selected Malaysian population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 1957-63. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1957
  28. Gillison ML (2007). Current topics in the epidemiology of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers. Head Neck, 29, 779-92. https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.20573
  29. Gomez I, Warnakulasuriya S, Varela-Centelles PI, Lopez-jornet P, Suarez-cunqueiro m, et al (2010). Is early diagnosis of oral cancer a feasible objective? Who is to blame for diagnostic delay? Oral Diseases, 16, 333-42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-0825.2009.01642.x
  30. Halawany HS, Jacob V, Abraham NB, Al-Maflehi N (2013). Oral cancer awareness and perception of tobacco use cessation counseling among dental students in four Asian countries. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3619-23. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.6.3619
  31. Lin WJ, Jiang RS, Wu SH, Chen FJ, Liu SA (2011). Smoking, alcohol, and betel quid and oral cancer: a prospective cohort study. J Oncol, 525, 976.
  32. Al-Attas, Ibrahim SS, Amer HA, Darwish ZE, Hassan MH (2014). Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 757-62. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.2.757
  33. Allard WF, De Vol EB, Te OB (1999). Smokeless tobacco (shamma) and oral cancer in Saudi Arabia. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 27, 398-405. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.1999.tb02038.x
  34. Amezaga JA, Herrero LB, Zubizarreta JIP, et al (2007). Diagnostic efficacy of sentinel node biopsy in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cohort study and meta-analysis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal, 12, 235-43.
  35. Amarasinghe HK, Usgodaraachchi U, Johnson NW, et al (2010). Public awareness of oral cancer, of oral potentially malignant disorders and of their risk factors in some rural populations in Sri Lanka. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 38, 540-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2010.00566.x
  36. Andisheh-Tadbir A, Mehrabani D, Taghi HS (2008). Epidemiology of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in Iran. J Craniofacial Sur, 19, 1699-702. https://doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e31818c04cc
  37. Berrino F, De Angelis R, Sant M, et al (2003). The EUROCARE Study: strenghts, limitations and perspectives of populationbased, comparative survival studies. Ann Oncol, 14, 9-13. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdg030
  38. Blot WJ, Mc Laughlin JK., Winn DM, et al (1988). Smoking and drinking in relation to oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cancer Res, 48, 3282-7.
  39. Brown A, Ravichandran K, Warnakulasuriya S (2006). The unequal burden related to the risk of oral cancer in the different regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community Dental Health J, 23, 101-6.

Cited by

  1. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Cancer in Yemen vol.15, pp.24, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.24.10861
  2. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Associated Risk Factors in Jazan, Saudi Arabia: A Hospital Based Case Control Study vol.16, pp.10, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.10.4335
  3. Oral Cancer Awareness of the General Public in Saudi Arabia vol.16, pp.8, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3377
  4. Antiproliferative Evaluation and Apoptosis Induction in MCF-7 Cells by Ziziphus spina christi Leaf Extracts vol.17, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.315
  5. Impact of an Information Leaflet on Knowledge of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Hepatitis B among Chinese Youth vol.17, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.1.439
  6. Relative Frequency of Oral Malignancies and Oral Precancer in the Biopsy Service of Jazan Province, 2009-2014 vol.17, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.519
  7. Oral Cancer: Awareness and Knowledge Among Dental Patients in Riyadh vol.32, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-015-0924-y
  8. Detection of cytological changes in oral mucosa among users of smokeless tobacco (shamma) in the KSA vol.45, pp.8, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/dc.23745
  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Theory-Informed School-Based Intervention to Prevent Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: Changes in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors in 6th and 7th Graders in Lebanon vol.15, pp.9, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091839
  10. The characteristics and patterns of utilization of healthcare services among Omanis with substance use disorders attending therapy for cessation vol.14, pp.1, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210532