Utility of Digital Rectal Examination, Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, and Transrectal Ultrasound in the Detection of Prostate Cancer: A Developing Country Perspective

  • Kash, Deep Par (Department of Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT)) ;
  • Lal, Murli (Department of Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT)) ;
  • Hashmi, Altaf Hussain (Department of Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT)) ;
  • Mubarak, Muhammed (Department of Histopathology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT))
  • Published : 2014.04.01


Purpose: To determine the utility of digital rectal examination (DRE), serum total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) estimation, and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Materials and Methods: All patients with abnormal DRE, TRUS, or serum tPSA >4ng/ml, in any combination, underwent TRUS-guided needle biopsy. Eight cores of prostatic tissue were obtained from different areas of the peripheral prostate and examined histopathologically for the nature of the pathology. Results: PCa was detected in 151 (50.3%) patients, remaining 149 (49.7%) showed benign changes with or without active prostatitis. PCa was detected in 13 (56.5%), 9 (19.1%), 26 (28.3%), and 103 (74.6%) of patients with tPSA <4 ng/ml, 4-10 ng/ml, 10-20 ng/ml and >20 ng/ml respectively. Only 13 patients with PCa had abnormal DRE and TRUS with serum PSA <4 ng/ml. The detection rate was highest in patients with tPSA >20 ng/ml. The association between tPSA level and cancer detection was statistically significant (p<0.01). Among 209 patients with abnormal DRE and raised serum PSA, PCa was detected in 128 (61.2%). Conclusions: The incidence of PCa increases with increasing serum level of tPSA. The overall screening and detection rate can be further improved by using DRE, TRUS and TRUS-guided prostate needle biopsies.


Biopsy;digital rectal examination;prostate cancer;transrectal ultrasound;Pakistan


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