Extract of Saccharina japonica Induces Apoptosis companied by Cell Cycle Arrest and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in SK-Hep1 Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

  • Jung, Hyun Il (Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Jo, Mi Jeong (Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Kim, Hyung-Rak (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Fishery Sciences, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Choi, Yung Hyun (Department of Biochemistry, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongeui University) ;
  • Kim, Gun-Do (Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Pukyong National University)
  • Published : 2014.04.01


Saccharina japonica is a family member of Phaeophyceae (brown macro-alga) and extensively cultivated in China, Japan and Korea. Here, the potential anti-cancer effect of n-hexane fraction of S. japonica was evaluated in SK-Hep1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The N-hexane fraction reduced cell viability and increased the numbers of apoptotic cells in a both dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis was activated by both caspase-dependent and independent pathways. The caspase-dependent cell death pathway is mediated by cell surface death receptors and activated caspase-8 amplified the apoptotic signal either through direct activation of downstream caspase-3 or pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bax and Bak) subsequently leading to the release of cytochrome c. On the other hand, caspase-independent apoptosis appeared mediated by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of AIF to the nucleus where they induced chromatin condensation and/or large-scale DNA fragmentation. In addition, the n-hexane fraction induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and cell cycle arrest. The results suggested that potential anti-cancer effects of n-hexane extract from S. japonica on SK-Hep1 cells.


Caspase-dependent/independent apoptosis;Hep1 cells;cell cycle arrest;ER-stress;Saccharina japonica


Supported by : Pukyong National University


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