DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Correlation of Breast Cancer Incidence with the Number of Motor Vehicles and Consumption of Gasoline in Korea

  • Park, Boyoung (National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center) ;
  • Shin, Aesun (Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine) ;
  • Jung-Choi, Kyunghee (Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Ha, Eunhee (Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Cheong, Hae-Kwan (Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Hyun Jeong (Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Park, Kyung Hwa (Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Jang, Sungmi (Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Moon, Byung-In (Department of Surgery, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Ha, Mina (Department of Preventive Medicine, Dankook University College of Medicine)
  • Published : 2014.04.01

Abstract

While several reproductive and lifestyle-related factors are already well-known as established risk factors for breast cancer, environmental factors have attracted attention only recently. The objective of the current study was to assess the association between the breast cancer incidences in females, the mortality rate and the number of motor vehicles on the one side and the consumption of gasoline which could work as a major source of air pollution at the other side. The breast cancer incidences and the mortality trends were compared with various indices of westernization like dietary patterns or industrialization with 10 years lag of time. Geographical variations with 10, 15 and 20 years lag of time were assessed between the breast cancer incidence in 2010 and the number of motor vehicles as well as the consumption of gasoline. The upward trend of motor vehicle numbers proved to be comparable to those of breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, the consumption of gasoline started to decrease since the mid-1990s. The geographic distribution of motor vehicle numbers and gasoline consumption in 1990 is in a positive correlation with the breast cancer incidence rates in 2010 and the 20-year lag time ($R^2$ 0.379 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.345 with consumption of gasoline). In a linear relationship between the breast cancer incidences in 2010 and the log transformed number of motor vehicles, the log transformed consumption of gasoline in 2000 also showed a positive relationship ($R^2$ 0.367 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.329 with consumption of gasoline). The results of the current study indicate that there may be a positive relation between the number of vehicles, gasoline consumption and the incidence of breast cancer from the aspects of long-term trends and geographical variation.

Keywords

Breast cancer;environmental factor;traffic emission;motor vehicle;consumption of gasoline

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Institute of Environmental Research

References

  1. Korean Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. Registered motor vehicle status. (Available at : http://www.molit.go.kr/portal.do).
  2. Statistics Korea. State of production of mining and manufacturing industries by items. (Available at : www.kostat.go.kr).
  3. Straif K., Baan R, Grosse Y, et al (2005). Carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Lancet Oncol, 6, 931-2. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(05)70458-7
  4. Korea Energy Economics Institute Statsitics on Energy consumption (Available at: http://www.keei.re.kr/main.nsf/index.html).
  5. Korean Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs State of preduction of agriculture and food. (Available at: http://www.mafra.go.kr/main.jsp).
  6. Korean Ministry of Environment Nationwide waste disposal status in Korea (Available at: http://stat.me.go.kr/nesis/index.jsp).
  7. Madigan MP, Ziegler RG, Benichou J, Byrne C, Hoover RN (1995). Proportion of breast cancer cases in the United States explained by well-established risk factors. J Natl Cancer Inst, 87, 1681-5. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/87.22.1681
  8. Boyoung Park et al 2964 Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol 15, 2014
  9. Morris JJ, Seifter E (1992). The role of aromatic hydrocarbons in the genesis of breast cancer. Med Hypotheses, 38, 177-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-9877(92)90090-Y
  10. Nasca PC, Mahoney MC, Wolfgang PE (1992). Population density and cancer incidence differentials in New York State, 1978-82. Cancer Causes Control, 3, 7-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00051906
  11. Nie J, TWO NAMES, et al (2007). Exposure to traffic emissions throughout life and risk of breast cancer: the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) study. Cancer Causes Control, 18, 947-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-007-9036-2
  12. Parent ME, TWO NAMES, et al. (2013). Traffic-related air pollution and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada. Occup Environ Med, 70, 511-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2012-101211
  13. Porter PL (2009). Global trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality. Salud Publica Mex, 51 Suppl 2, s141-6. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342009000800003
  14. Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL (2008). Modern Epidemiology: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  15. Segi M (1960). Cancer mortality for selected sites in 24 countries (1950-1967). Sendai, Japan: Tokohu University School of Medicine.
  16. Igissinov N, et al (2013) Malignant Tumours of the Central Nervous System in Kazakhstan - Incidence Trends from 2004-2011. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 4181-4186 https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.7.4181
  17. Crouse DL, Goldberg MS, Ross NA, Chen H, Labreche F (2010). Postmenopausal breast cancer is associated with exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Montreal, Canada: a casecontrol study. Environ Health Perspect, 118, 1578-83. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002221
  18. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al (2010). Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer, 127, 2893-2917. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25516
  19. Guo H, Lee SC, Chan LY, Li WM (2004). Risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in different indoor environments. Environ Res, 94, 57-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00035-5
  20. Igissinov N, et al (2013) Epidemiological evaluation of laryngeal cancer incidence in Kazakhstan for The Years 1999-2009. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3969-3974 https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.6.3969
  21. Jemal A., Center, M. M., DeSantis, C. and Ward, E. M. (2010). Global patterns of cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 19, 1893-907. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0437
  22. Jung KW, Won YJ, Kong HJ, et al (2013). Cancer statistics in Korea: incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence in 2010. Cancer Res Treat, 45, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.4143/crt.2013.45.1.1
  23. Key TJ, Verkasalo PK, Banks E (2001). Epidemiology of breast cancer. Lancet Oncol, 2, 133-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(00)00254-0
  24. Kim J, Shin A, Lee JS, Youn S, Yoo KY (2009). Dietary factors and breast cancer in Korea: an ecological study. Breast J, 15, 683-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4741.2009.00817.x
  25. Bonner MR, et al. (2005). Breast cancer risk and exposure in early life to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using total suspended particulates as a proxy measure. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14, 53-60.
  26. ATSDR (1995). Toxicological Profile for Automotive Gasoline. Atlanta, GA: U.S: Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
  27. Bilyalova Z, Igissinov N, Moore M, et al (2012). Epidemiological evaluation of breast cancer in ecological areas of Kazakhstanassociation with pollution emissions. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 2341-4. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.5.2341
  28. Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF Jr, Stone BJ (1977). Geographic patterns of breast cancer in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst, 59, 1407-11. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/59.5.1407
  29. Bray F, McCarron P, Parkin, DM (2004). The changing global patterns of female breast cancer incidence and mortality. Breast Cancer Res, 6, 229-39. https://doi.org/10.1186/bcr932
  30. Chen F, Bina WF (2012). Correlation of white female breast cancer incidence trends with nitrogen dioxide emission levels and motor vehicle density patterns. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 132, 327-33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-011-1861-z
  31. Chen F, Cole P, Bina WF (2007). Time trend and geographic patterns of lung adenocarcinoma in the United States, 1973-2002. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 16, 2724-9. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0455
  32. Coyle, Y. M. (2004). The effect of environment on breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 84, 273-288. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BREA.0000019964.33963.09

Cited by

  1. Roles of Oxidative Stress in the Development and Progression of Breast Cancer vol.15, pp.12, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4745
  2. Additive Properties of Crude, Age Specific and Age Adjusted Rates for Cancer Incidence and Mortality vol.15, pp.13, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5407
  3. Elevated Serum Levels of SCUBE1, a Marker for Coagulation, in Patients with Breast Cancer vol.237, pp.2, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1620/tjem.237.127
  4. Occupational exposures to engine exhausts and other PAHs and breast cancer risk: A population-based case-control study vol.59, pp.6, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22592
  5. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project vol.125, pp.10, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1742
  6. Acknowledging Female Victims of Green Crimes: Environmental Exposure of Women to Industrial Pollutants vol.13, pp.4, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1177/1557085116673172