Breast Cancer: Major Risk Factors and Recent Developments in Treatment

  • Majeed, Wafa (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Aslam, Bilal (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Javed, Ijaz (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Khaliq, Tanweer (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Muhammad, Faqir (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Ali, Asghar (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Raza, Ahmad (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture)
  • Published : 2014.04.30


Breast cancer is the most common in women worldwide, with some 5-10% of all cases due to inherited mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Obesity, hormone therapy and use of alcohol are possible causes and over-expression of leptin in adipose tissue may also play a role. Normally surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy allow a good prognosis where screening measures are in place. New hope in treatment measures include adjuvant therapy, neoadjuvant therapy, and introduction of mono-clonal antibodies and enzyme inhibitors.


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