- Volume 24 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
Gene Expression Analysis of Immune Cell Activation Markers in Extracts of Platycodon grandiflorum Containing Medicinal Herbs
도라지 추출액과 한약재 함유 도라지 추출액에 의한 면역세포 활성 표지유전자 발현 분석
- Kang, Shin Ae ;
- Chun, Sung Sik ;
- Kang, Shin Kwon ;
- Chung, Young Chul ;
- Cheon, Eun Woo ;
- Cho, Sang Uk ;
- Jung, Kyung Hwa ;
- Ahn, Soon Cheol ;
- Yu, Hak Sun
- Received : 2014.02.06
- Accepted : 2014.04.16
- Published : 2014.05.30
Extracts of Platycodon grandiflorum have been reported to show anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-metastatic, and hepato-protective effects. This study was designed to evaluate T-cell activation and M1/M2 differential macrophage activation by extracts of P. grandiflorum or P. grandiflorum containing various medicinal herbs. Using real-time RT-PCR, we analyzed expression levels of c-fos, and CD40L (T-cell activation markers) in splenocytes and iNOS, Ym1, and ARG1 in RAW 246.7 cells after treatment of CC (hot water extract of P. grandiflorum), MAEK (hot water extract of P. grandiflorum [82%] and six different plants), and HWAL (hot water extract of P. grandiflorum [7%] and eight different plants. The results showed that MAEK significantly elevated the expression of T-cell activation markers of splenocytes, with the c-fos gene activated more than 10-fold and the CD40L gene activated more than 6-fold. Although CD40L was significantly increased by CC and HWAL, the increase was only about 2-fold. In addition, CC and HWAL did not significantly activate the expression of the c-fos gene. On the other hand, CC elevated the M1 activation marker iNOS, and HWAL elevated the M2 activation marker Ym1 and ARG1 gene expression. In conclusion, MAEK could be used as an immune stimulant because of its ability to activate T cells (elicited c-fos and CD40L gene expression), whereas HWAL could serve as an anti-inflammatory agent because of its differential activation of M2 macrophages.
Anti-inflammation;immune activation;macrophages;Platycodon grandiflorum;splenocytes
- Matzinger, P. 2002. The danger model: a renewed sense of self. Science 296, 301-305. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1071059
- Sun, H., Zhong, Y. J., Zheng, X. L., Wang, Q., Yang, L., Shi, F., Yan, J. Q., He, F., Liao, L. C., Lin, Y., Zhang, L. and Wang, X. 2012. Critical role of CD40-mediated autocrine tumor necrosis factor-alpha in potentiation of cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Cancer Sci 103, 197-202. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2011.02122.x
- Sung, Y. Y., Yoon, T., Jang, J. Y., Park, S. J. and Kim, H. K. 2011. Topical application of Rehmannia glutinosa extract inhibits mite allergen-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. J Ethnopharmacol 134, 37-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.050
- Van Dyken, S. J. and Locksley, R. M. 2013. Interleukin-4-and interleukin-13-mediated alternatively activated macrophages: roles in homeostasis and disease. Annu Rev Immunol 31, 317-343. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-032712-095906
- Liu, Y., Gao, X., Deeb, D., Arbab, A. S., Dulchavsky, S. A. and Gautam, S. C. 2012. Anticancer agent xanthohumol inhibits IL-2 induced signaling pathways involved in T cell proliferation. J Exp Ther Oncol 10, 1-8.
- Martinez, F. O., Helming, L. and Gordon, S. 2009. Alternative activation of macrophages: an immunologic functional perspective. Ann Rev Immunol 27, 451-483. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.immunol.021908.132532
- Mebius, R. E. and Kraal, G. 2005. Structure and function of the spleen. Nat Rev Immunol 5, 606-616. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri1669
- Nacy, C. A. and Meltzer, M. S. 1991. T-cell-mediated activation of macrophages. Curr Opin Immunol 3, 330-335. https://doi.org/10.1016/0952-7915(91)90033-W
- OZAKI, Y. 1995. Studies on Antiinflammatory effect of Japanese oriental medicines (Kampo Medicines) used to treat inflammatory diseases. Biol Pharm Bull 18, 559-562. https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.18.559
- Park, J., Park, J., Lee, B., Choi, K., Ra, S. and Chang, K. 2000. Effects of extracts from various parts of Lycium chinense Mill on the proliferation of mouse spleen cells. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 8, 291-296.
- Rao, A. and Sung, M. 1995. Saponins as anticarcinogens. J Nutr 125, 717-724.
- Schoenberger, S. P., Toes, R. E., van der Voort, E. I., Offringa, R. and Melief, C. J. 1998. T-cell help for cytotoxic T lymphocytes is mediated by CD40-CD40L interactions. Nature 393, 480-483. https://doi.org/10.1038/31002
- Seo, M. J., Park, H. J. and Lee, H. J. 2013. Anti-allergic effect of the fermented angelicae gigantis radix in human mast cell line HMC-1. Korea J Herbol 28, 39-44. https://doi.org/10.6116/kjh.2013.28.5.39
- Shin, C. Y., Lee, W. J., Lee, E. B., Choi, E. Y. and Ko, K. H. 2002. Platycodin D and D3 increase airway mucin release in vivo and in vitro in rats and hamsters. Planta Med 68, 221-225. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-23130
- Cronin, S. J. and Penninger, J. M. 2007. From T-cell activation signals to signaling control of anti-cancer immunity. Immunol Rev 220, 151-168. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065X.2007.00570.x
- Bendich, A. and Olson, J. A. 1989. Biological actions of carotenoids. FASEB J 3, 1927-1932. https://doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.3.8.2656356
- Bryant, P. and Ploegh, H. 2004. Class II MHC peptide loading by the professionals. Curr Opin Immunol. 16, 96-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2003.11.011
- Choi, K. S. 2013. Effects of coated liposome from discorea rhizoma extract (DRE) -on hypoglycemic, serum insulin, and lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced evaluation of zntioxidant activity of pPlatycodon grandiflorum. Korean J Food Nutr 26, 310-317. https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2013.26.2.310
- Hoffman, G. E., Smith, M. S. and Verbalis, J. G. 1993. c-Fos and related immediate early gene products as markers of activity in neuroendocrine systems. Front Neuroendocrinol 14, 173-213. https://doi.org/10.1006/frne.1993.1006
- Janeway, Jr. C. A. and Medzhitov, R. 2002. Innate immune recognition. Annurev Immunol 20, 197-216. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.immunol.20.083001.084359
- Kang, S. A., Cho, M. K., Park, M. K., Kim, D. H., Hong, Y. C., Lee, Y. S., Cha, H. J., Ock, M. S. and Yu, H. S. 2012. Alteration of helper T-cell related cytokine production in splenocytes during Trichinella spiralis infection. Vet Parasitol 186, 319-327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.12.002
- Kim, C. H., Jung, B. Y., Jung, S. K., Lee, C. H., Lee, H. S., Kim, B. and Kim, S. K. 2010. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Platycodon grandiflorum. Environ Toxicol 25, 85-94.
- Kim, Y., Lee, B., Kim, K., Lee, Y., Cho, K. and Chung, Y. 1998. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of the P. grandiflorum cultivated for more than 20 years. J Pharmaceut Soc Korea 42, 382-387.
- Le Tran, Q., Adnyana, I. K., Tezuka, Y., Harimaya, Y., Saiki, I., Kurashige, Y., Tran, Q. K. and Kadota, S. 2002. Hepatoprotective effect of majonoside R2, the major saponin from Vietnamese ginseng (Panax vietnamensis). Planta Med 68, 402-406. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-32069