- Volume 9 Issue 2
PURPOSE: This study uses X-rays investigate how university students' smart phone use affects the cervical vertebral angle. METHODS: Ninety-two randomly selected students agreed to participate in this study. The participants' number of hours of smart phone use was gathered using a questionnaire. An X-ray of the participants' cervical vertebrae was taken, and the cervical vertebral angle was measured using the Cobb and the absolute rotation angle (ARA) method. Also, the relation between pain and hours of smart phone use was identified using a visual analog scale (VAS). Using SPSS ver18, the relationships among the cervical vertebral angle and the items in the questionnaire were identified and a frequency analysis, an independent t-test, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were calculated. RESULTS: The study showed that an increase in the number hours of smart phone per day led to cervical lordosis(p<0.05). The relationships between points of smart phone addiction and cervical vertebral angle have a negative correlation (p<0.05). Therefore, there are the higher smart phone addiction points, the decrease the cervical vertebral angle. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that increase in smart phone use lead to cervical lordosis, and smart phone addiction scores resulted in decreased in the cervical vertebral angle.
ARA method (C2-C7);Cobb method (C1-C7);Smart phone;Smart phone addition;X-ray
- Lee BH, Yoon HI, Park JW. A study on efficiency of pain management by questionnaire using visual analogue in back-pain patents. The Journal of Korean Academy of Orthopedic Manual Therapy. 1995;1(1):105-12.
- Kim DM, Ha SY, Cho SY et al. The study about the Correlation between Cervical Hypolordosis and Neck Pain. The Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society. 2008;25(3):69-76.
- Kim YG, Kang MH, Kim JW, Jang JH, Oh JS. Influence of the duration of smartphone usage in flexion angles of the crevical and lumbar spine and on reposition error in the cervical spine. Phys Ther Kor. 2013;20(1):10-7. https://doi.org/10.12674/ptk.2013.20.1.010
- Kim YJ. The effect of Ballet Program on Turtle Neck Syndrome in Office Workers. Hanyang University, Master Thesis, 2012.
- Lee CH. The Influence of Neck Pain on Balance in Young People. J Korean soc phys med. 2012;7(4):423-32. https://doi.org/10.13066/kspm.2012.7.4.423
- Lee YS. A study on the effect of Mobile phone use Addiction on teenage health: focused on neck pain. Kwangwoon university. Master Thesis, 2013.
- Park JH, Kang SY, Jeon HE. the effect of using smart-phones on neck and shoulder muscle activites and fatigue. Phys Ther Kor. 2013;20(3):19-26. https://doi.org/10.12674/ptk.2013.20.3.019
- Park JS. The Variables in Influencing on Smart phone Addiction in Adolescents and College Students. Dankook University. Masters Thesis. 2012.
- Park YM. A Study on Adult's Smart Phone Addition and Mental Health. Sangji University. Masters Thesis. 2011.
- Stephens J, Allen J. Mobile Phone Interventions to Increase Physical Activity and Reduce Weight: A Systematic Review. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2013;28(4):320-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCN.0b013e318250a3e7
- Twomey L, Taylor J. Flexion creep deformation and hysteresis in the lumbar vertebral column. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1982;7(2):116-122. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-198203000-00005
- Yang SY. The Study on Mobile Phone Addiction of Adolescence. Konyang University. Master Thesis. 2005.
- Hass M, Taylor JA, Gillete RG. The routine use of radigraphic spinal displacement analysis : a dissent. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999;22(1):254-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-4754(99)70053-9
- Harms-Ringdahl K, Ekholm J. Intensity and character of pain and muscular activity levels elicited by maintained extreme flexion position of the lower-cervical-upper-thoracic spine. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1986;18(3):117-26.
- Harrison DD, Janik TJ, Troyanovich SJ, et al. Comparisons of lordotic cervical spine curvatures to a theoretical ideal model of the static sagittal cervical spine. Spine. 1996;21(6):667-75. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199603150-00002
- Harrison D, Harrison D, Troyanvich S, et al. Anrmal spinal position : It's time to asscept evidence, J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2000;23(9):623-44. https://doi.org/10.1067/mmt.2000.110941
- Huskisson EC. Measurement of Pain. The Lancet. 1974; 304(7789):1127-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(74)90884-8
- Jang C. The effect of Ultrasound Treatment on the Angle of Cervical Vertebrae Movement of VDT Syndrome Patients. Daegue University. Master Thesis. 2003.
- Jackson BL, Harrison DD, Robertson GA. Chiropractic biophysics lateral cervical film analysis reliability. J. Manipulative Physiol. Ther. 1992;16(6):384-91.
- Jang MJ, Cho HJ. The Effect of Performing a 12 Weeks' Exercise Program on the Change of Cobb's Angle of Disabled Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis. Journal of Adapted Physical Activity. 2010;18(4):117-27. https://doi.org/10.17006/kjapa.2010.18.4.117
- Jeong HC, Kim HK, Kim S, et al. The change of the Cervical Spine Curvature after Whiplash injury by Traffic Accident. J Korean Oriental Med. 2010;5(1):31-40.
- Kim BY. The Correlations Amoms Highschool students' Internet Game Addition, Smartphone Addition, the Lack of Sleep and Stress. Univirsity of Sahamyook, Masters Thesis. 2012.
- Kim DG, Kim CW. Analysis of Educational Utilitization of Smartphones on Elementary Student. Journal of the Korean Association of information Education. 2013;17(3):367-73. https://doi.org/10.14352/jkaie.2013.17.3.367
- Berolo S, Wells RP, Amick BC 3rd. Musculoskeletal symptoms among mobile hand-held device users and their relationship to device use: A preliminary study in a Canadian university population. Appl Ergon. 2011;42(2):371-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2010.08.010
- Chang EK, Lee HK. A Study on the Factors influencing Smartphone User Satisfaction. Journal of comsumption culture. 2010;13(4):129-45. https://doi.org/10.17053/jcc.2010.13.4.007
- Grace EG, Sarlani E, Reid B. The use of an oral exercise device in the treatment of muscular TMD. Cranio. 2002;20(3):204-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/08869634.2002.11746212
- Grob D, Frauenfelder H, Mannion A. The association between cervical spine curvature and neck pain. Eur Spine J. 2007;16(5):669-78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-006-0254-1
- Gwag MJ, Lee HS. The Characteristics of Trend and Addictive Inclination in Mobile Phone Use among Adolescents. KJHE. 2009;13(1):183-205.
- Smartphone Addiction and Depression: The Mediating Effects of Self-esteem and Resilience among Middle School Students vol.28, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2017.28.3.280