DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Characteristics of Metallic and Ionic Concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 in Busan

부산지역 PM10과 PM2.5 중의 금속 농도와 이온농도 특성

  • Jeon, Byung-Il (Department of Environmental Engineering, Silla University) ;
  • Hwang, Yong-Sik (Institute for Environmental Health, Pusan National University)
  • 전병일 (신라대학교 환경공학과) ;
  • 황용식 (부산대학교 환경보건연구소)
  • Received : 2014.01.06
  • Accepted : 2014.03.03
  • Published : 2014.05.30

Abstract

This study analyzes the chemical composition of metallic elements and water-soluble ions in $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$. $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations in Busan during 2010-2012 were $97.2{\pm}67.5$ and $67.5{\pm}32.8{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, and the mean $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ concentration ratio was 0.73. The contribution rate of water-soluble ions to $PM_{10}$ ranged from 29.0% to 58.6%(a mean of 38.6%) and that to $PM_{2.5}$ ranged from 33.9% to 58.4%(a mean of 43.1%). The contribution rate of sea salt to $PM_{10}$ was 13.9% for 2011 and 9.7% for 2012, while that to $PM_{2.5}$ was 17.4% for 2011 and 10.1% for 2012. $PM_{10}$ concentration during Asian dust events was $334.3{\mu}g/m^3$ and $113.3{\mu}g/m^3$ during non-Asian dust events, and the $PM_{10}$ concentration ratio of Asian Dust/Non Asian dust was 2.95. On the other hand, the $PM_{2.5}$ concentration in Asian dust was $157.4{\mu}g/m^3$ and $83.2{\mu}g/m^3$ in Non Asian dust, and the $PM_{2.5}$ concentration ratio of Asian Dust/Non Asian dust was 1.89, which was lower than that of $PM_{10}$.

Keywords

$PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ concentration;$PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ ratio;Metallic elements;Water-soluble ions;Asian Dust

References

  1. Yao, X., Chan, C. K. Fang, M et al., 2002, The water-soluble ionic composition of $PM_{2.5}$ in Shanghai and Beijing, China: 1-inorganic ions, Atmos. Environ., 36(26), 4223-4234. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00342-4
  2. Vardoulakis, S., Kassomenos, P., 2008. Sources and factors affecting $PM_{10}$ levels in two European cities: implications for local air quality management. Atmos. Environ., 42, 3949-3963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.021
  3. Watson, J. G., 2002, Visibility: science and regulation, Air & Waste Manage. Asso., 52, 628-713. https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2002.10470813
  4. Willison, M, J., Clarke A. G., Zeki E. M., 1989, Chloride aerosols in central northern England, Atmos. Environ., 23(10), 2231-2239. https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(89)90185-6
  5. Makkonen, U., Hellen, H., Anttila, P., Ferm, M., 2010, Size distribution and chemical composition of airborne particles in south-eastern Finland during different seasons and wildfire episodes in 2006. Sci. Total Environ., 408, 644-651. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.050
  6. Millero, F. J., Sohn, M. L., 1992, Chemical Oceanography, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, 531.
  7. Park, G. H., Jeong, J. W., Cho, J. G., 2012, Evaluation of pollution characteristics and chemical composition of $PM_{2.5}$ in the ambient air of Busan(III), The Annual Report of Busan Metropolitan city Institute of Health & Environ., 22(1), 142-159.
  8. Park, J. Y., Lim, H. J., 2006, Characteristics of water soluble ions in fine particles during the winter and spring in Daegu, Kor. Soc. Atmos. Environ., 22(5), 627-641.
  9. Pope, C. A., Dockery, D. W., 2006, Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. Air & Waste Manag. Asso., 56, 709-742. https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2006.10464485
  10. US Environmental Protection Agency, 1997, National ambient air quality standards for particulate matter, Final Rule, Federal Register, 1997, 62(138), Part II, EPA, 40 CFR Part 50, 110p.
  11. Logan, J. A., 1983, Nitrogen oxides in the troposphere : global and regional budgets, J. Geophy. Rese., 88, 10785-10807. https://doi.org/10.1029/JC088iC15p10785
  12. Dockery, D. W. C., Pope, C. A., Xu, X., Spengler, J. D., Ware, J. H., Fay, M. E., Ferris, B. G., Speizer, F. E., 1993, An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. New England Journal of Medicine 329, 1753-1759. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199312093292401
  13. Ho, K. F., Lee, S. C., Chan, C. K., Yu, J. C., Chow, J. C., Yao, X. H., 2003, Characterization of chemical species in $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ aerosols in Hong Kong, Atmos. Environ., 37(1), 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00804-X
  14. Holland, H. D., 1978, The Chemistry of the Atmosphere and Ocean, John Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.
  15. Jeon, B. I., Hwang, Y. S., 2010, Chemical properties of the metallic composition and the mass concentration of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ observed in Busan, Korea in Springtime of 2006-2008, Kor. Earth Sci. Soc., 31(6), 234-245. https://doi.org/10.5467/JKESS.2010.31.3.234
  16. Jeon, B. I., Hwang, Y. S., Oh, K. J., 2010, Characteristics of metallic and ionic concentration in $PM_{10}$ at inland and seashore in Busan, Kor. Soc. Environ. Imp. Assess., 19(3), 323-333.
  17. Kassomenos, P. A., Vardoulakis, S., Chaloulakou, A., Paschalidou, A. K., Grivas, G., Borge, R., Lumbreras. J., 2014, Study of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ levels in three European cities: Analysis of intra and inter urban variations, Atmos. Environ., 87, 153-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.01.004
  18. Kim, K. Y., 2006, The distribution of atmospheric sea-salt concentration Jeju Island, Jeju National University Master's thesis, 62pp.
  19. Asman, W., Jaarsveld, H., 1991, A variable-resolution transport model applied for NHX in Europe, Atmos. Environ., 24A(2), 445-464.
  20. Baldauf, R. W., Lane, D. D., Marotz, G. A., Wiener, R. W., 2001, Performance evaluation of the portable MiniVol particulate matter sampler, Atmos. Environ., 35, 6087-6091. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00403-4

Cited by

  1. at Busan in Springtime vol.24, pp.6, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5322/JESI.2015.24.6.785
  2. Analytical methods for atmospheric particulate aerosols: Focused on the physical properties and chemical composition of metals and water soluble ionic compounds vol.28, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5806/AST.2015.28.3.139
  3. Concentration Rise of Fine Particle according to Resuspended Dust from Paved Roads after Sudden Heavy Rain in Busan vol.25, pp.5, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5322/JESI.2016.25.5.705
  4. PM2.5 Source Apportionment Analysis to Investigate Contributions of the Major Source Areas in the Southeastern Region of South Korea vol.34, pp.4, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5572/KOSAE.2018.34.4.517