Simulation of Electric Vehicles Combining Structural and Functional Approaches

  • Silva, L.I. ;
  • Magallan, G.A. ;
  • De La Barrera, P.M. ;
  • De Angelo, C.H. ;
  • Garcia, G.O.
  • Received : 2013.05.24
  • Accepted : 2013.10.22
  • Published : 2014.05.01


In this paper the construction of a model that represents the behavior of an Electric Vehicle is described. Both the mechanical and the electric traction systems are represented using Multi-Bond Graph structural approach suited to model large scale physical systems. Then the model of the controllers, represented with a functional approach, is included giving rise to an integrated model which exploits the advantages of both approaches. Simulation and experimental results are aimed to illustrate the electromechanical interaction and to validate the proposal.


Modeling and simulation;Electric vehicles;Multi-bond graph


  1. D. Gao, C. Mi, and A. Emadi, "Modeling and simulation of electric and hybrid vehicles," Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 729-745, april 2007.
  2. A. T. Kamil Cagatay Bayindir, Mehmet Ali Gozukucuk, "A comprehensive overview of HEV: Powertrain configurations, powertrain control techniques and electronic control units," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 1305-1313, 2011.
  3. L. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Yin, H. Zhang, and C. Wang, "Hardware in the loop simulation for the design and verification of the control system of a series-parallel hybrid electric city-bus," Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, vol. 25, pp. 148-162, 2012.
  4. C. Chan, A. Bouscayrol, and K. Chen, "Electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles: Architectures and modeling," Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 589-598, feb. 2010.
  5. R. Schonfeld and G.-H. Geitner, "Power flow and information flow in motion control system," in Proc. EPE-PEMC, sept. 2004.
  6. P. Gawthrop and G. Bevan, "Bond-graph modeling," Control Systems Magazine, IEEE, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 24-45, april 2007.
  7. D. C. Karnopp, D. L. Margolis, and R. C. Rosenberg, System Dynamics: Modeling And Simulation of Mechatronic Systems. New York, USA: Willey Intersciences, 2006.
  8. J. Jang and C. Han, "Proposition of a modeling method for constrained mechanical systems based on the vector bond graph," Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 335, no. 3, pp. 451-469, 1998.
  9. G.-H. Geitner, "Power flow diagrams using a bond graph library under simulink," in IEEE Industrial Electronics, IECON 2006-32nd Annual Conference on, nov. 2006, pp. 5282-5288.
  10. A. Bouscayrol, B. Davat, B. de Fornel, B. Francois, J. P. Hautier, F. Meibody-Tabar, and M. Pietrzak-David, "Multimachine multiconverter system: application for electromechanical drives," Eur. Phys. J., Appl. Phys., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 131-147, May 2000.
  11. L. Boulon, D. Hissel, A. Bouscayrol, O. Pape, and M. Pera, "Simulation model of a military HEV with a highly redundant architecture," Vehicular Tech, IEEE Trans. on, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 2654-2663, july 2010.
  12. K. Wipke, M. Cuddy, and S. Burch, "ADVISOR 2.1: a user-friendly advanced powertrain simulation using a combined backward/forward approach," Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1751-1761, Nov. 1999.
  13. L. Guzzella and A. Amstutz, "CAE tools for quasistatic modeling and optimization of hybrid powertrains," Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1762-1769, Nov. 1999.
  14. D. Somayajula, A. Meintz, and M. Ferdowsi, "Designing efficient hybrid electric vehicles," Vehicular Technology Magazine, IEEE, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 65-72, june 2009.
  15. M. Sekour, K. Hartani, A. Draou, and A. Allali, "Sensorless fuzzy direct torque control for high performance electric vehicle with four in-wheel motors," Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 530-543, 2013.
  16. B. Zupancic and A. Sodja, "Computer-aided physical multi-domain modelling: Some experiences from education and industrial applications," Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 2012, in Press.
  17. P. Delarue, A. Bouscayrol, and P. Barrade, "Energetic macroscopic representation and PSIM R_ simulation: Application to a DC / DC converter input filter stability," in Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2010 IEEE, sept. 2010, pp. 1-6.
  18. H. Borhan, A. Vahidi, A. Phillips, M. Kuang, I. Kolmanovsky, and S. Di Cairano, "MPC-based energy management of a powersplit hybrid electric vehicle," Control Systems Technology, IEEE Trans-actions on, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 593-603, may 2012.
  19. S. Onoda and A. Emadi, "PSIM-based modeling of automotive power systems: conventional, EVs, and HEVs," Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 390-400, march 2004.
  20. R. Wang and J. Wang, "Fault-tolerant control with active fault diagnosis for 4W independently driven electric ground vehicles," VT, IEEE Trans on, vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 4276-4287, nov. 2011.
  21. J. P. Mihael Cipek, Danijel Pavkovic, "A controloriented simulation model of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle," Applied Energy, vol. 101, pp. 121-133, 2013.
  22. T. Bera, K. Bhattacharya and A. Samantaray, "Evaluation of antilock braking system with an integrated model of full vehicle system dynamics," Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2131-2150, 2011.
  23. L. Silva, G. Magallan, C. De Angelo, and G. Garcia, "Vehicle dynamics using multi-bond graphs: Four wheel electric vehicle modeling," in Industrial Electronics, 2008. IECON 2008. 34th Annual Conference of IEEE, nov. 2008, pp. 2846-2851.
  24. M. Djeziri, R. Merzouki, and B. Bouamama, "Robust monitoring of an EV with structured and unstructured uncertainties," Vehicular Tech, IEEE Trans. on, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 4710-4719, nov. 2009.
  25. "Modelica Language Specification, version 3.3," may 2012.[Online].Available:
  26. D. Zimmer and F. Cellier, "The modelica multi-bond graph library," in Proc. 5th Int. Modelica Conference, vol. 2, 2006, pp. 559-568.
  27. E. Velenis, P. Tsiotras, C. Canudas-de Wit, and M. Sorine, "Dynamic tyre friction models for combined longitudinal and lateral vehicle motion," Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 3-29, 2005.
  28. G. Magallan, C. De Angelo, and G. Garcia, "Maximization of the traction forces in a 2WD electric vehicle," Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 369-380, Feb. 2011.
  29. L. Silva, G. Magallan, P. de la Barrera, C. De Angelo, and G. Garcia, "Modeling of EV dynamics with multi-bond graphs," in Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conf. (VPPC'10), IEEE, sept. 2010, pp. 1-7.
  30. J.Kang, J. Yoo, and K. Yi, "Driving control algorithm for maneuverability, lateral stability, and rollover prevention of 4WD EV with independently driven front and rear wheels," Vehicular Technology, IEEE Trans on, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 2987-3001, sept. 2011.
  31. W. Cho, J. Choi, C. Kim, S. Choi, and K. Yi, "Unified chassis control for the improvement of agility, maneuverability, and lateral stability," Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 1008-1020, march 2012.
  32. K. Nam, S. Oh, H. Fujimoto, and Y. Hori, "Estimation of sideslip and roll angles of electric vehicles using lateral tire force sensors through rls and kalman filter approaches," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 988-1000, march 2013.
  33. G. A. Magallan, C. H. De Angelo, and G. O. Garcia, "A Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Development with Individual Traction on Rear Wheels," Int. Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (IJEHV), vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 115-136, Oct. 2009.
  34. R. Sampaio, A. Hernandes, V. do Valle Magalha andes Fernandes, M. Becker, and A. Siqueira, "A new control architecture for robust controllers in rear electric traction passenger HEVs," Vehicular Tech, IEEE Trans on, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 3441-3453, oct. 2012.
  35. R. Duma, P. Dobra, M. Abrudean, and M. Dobra, "Rapid prototyping of control systems using embedded target for TI c2000 DSP," in Control & Automation. MED '07 Conf. on, June 2007, pp. 1-5.