Effects of Housing Systems and the Diet Supplements on the Slaughter Value and Concentration of Mineral Elements in the Loin Muscle of Lambs

  • Gabryszuk, M. (Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences) ;
  • Kuicika, E. (Faculty of Animal Science, Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW) ;
  • Horbanzuk, K. (Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences) ;
  • Oprzadek, J. (Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences)
  • Received : 2013.10.17
  • Accepted : 2013.12.30
  • Published : 2014.05.01


The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maintenance system as well as the effect of Se, Zn, and vitamin E supplementation of ram-lambs on the slaughter value and concentration of mineral elements in the loin muscle of lambs. The experiment was conducted on 72 Polish Merino ram-lambs divided into three groups: group C, indoor with no supplement, 19 lambs; S, indoor with supplement, 23 lambs; G, outdoor with no supplement, 30 lambs. From birth all the lambs were maintained indoor with their dams and then weaned at the age of 8 weeks. The rams from group C and S were placed in individual straw-bedded pens and fattened individually with concentrate mixture offered ad libitum until the age of 16 weeks. The lambs from group G were grazed every day from May to July (2 months). During the fattening period each lamb from the supplemented group S was administered per os 1 mL 0.1% $Na_2SeO_4$ (Se, 0.42 mg), 3 mL 10% $ZnSO_4$ (Zn, 68 mg), and 1 mL premix protect vitamin E (0.1 g ${\alpha}$-tocopherol, 5 mg lysine, 5 mg methionine) daily. A comparison of half carcasses across the groups has shown no difference between the control group and the one with supplements, while the weight of half carcasses in the grazing group was smaller in comparison with groups C and S (p<0.001). The meat content in the pelvic limb showed no differences across all groups under study. The pelvic limb of grazing lambs contained less fat compared to the control and supplemented groups (p<0.001). The concentrations of Se and Zn in the blood plasma of ram-lambs from the supplemented group were significantly higher than for the control and grazing lambs. Inorganic Se and Zn supplementation with vitamin E to the diet of lambs increased Se and Zn levels in loin muscle (p<0.001) to $0.46{\mu}g/g$ and $32.9{\mu}g/g$ in fresh tissue, respectively.


  1. Davis, P. A., L. R. McDowell, N. S. Wilkinson, C. D. Buergelt, R. Van Alstyne, R. N. Weldon, T. T. Marshall, and E. Y. Matsuda-Fugisaki. 2008. Comparative effects of various dietary levels of Se as sodium selenite or Se yeast on blood, wool, and tissue Se concentrations of wether sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 74: 149-158.
  2. Carrasco, S., G. Ripoll, A. Sanz, J. Alvarez-Rodrigez, B. Panea, R. Revilla, and M. Joy. 2009a. Effect of feeding system on growth and carcass characteristics of Churra Tensina light lambs. Livest. Sci. 121:56-63.
  3. Carrasco, S., G. Ripoll, B. Panea, J. Alvarez-Rodriguez, and M. Joy. 2009b. Carcass tissue composition in light lambs: Influence of feeding system and prediction equations. Livest. Sci. 126: 112-121.
  4. Cakala, S. 1981. Diseases of Sheep (in polish). PWRiL, Warsaw, Poland.
  5. Fairweather-Tait, S. J., Y. Bao, M. R. Broadley, R. Collings, D. Ford, J. E. Hesketh, and R. Hurst. 2011. Selenium in human health and disease. Antioxid. Redox. Signal. 14:1337-1383.
  6. Gabryszuk, M., M. Czauderna, A. Baranowski, N. StrzaIkowska, A. J ozwik, and J. Krzyzewski. 2007. The effect of diet supplementation with Se, Zn and vitamin E on cholesterol, CLA and fatty acid contents of meat and liver of lambs. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep. 25:25-33.
  7. Gabryszuk, M. and J. Klewiec. 2002. Effect of injecting 2- and 3-year-old ewes with selenium and selenium-vitamin E on reproduction and rearing of lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 43:127-132.
  8. Garg, A. K., V. Mudgal, and R. S. Dass. 2008. Effect of organic zinc supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile in lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 144: 82-96.
  9. Hefnawy, A. E. G. and J. L. Tortora-Perez. 2010. The importance of selenium and the effects of its deficiency in animal health. Small Rumin. Res. 89:185-192.
  10. Hidiroglou, M., A. J. Mcallister, and C. J. Williams. 1987. Prepartum supplementation of selenium and vitamin E to dairy cows: Assessment of selenium status and reproductive performance. J. Dairy Sci. 70:1281-1288.
  11. Jacques, J., R. Berthiaume, and D. Cing-Mars. 2011. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Dorset lambs fed different concentrates: Forage ratios or fresh grass. Small Rumin. Res. 95:113-119.
  12. Judson, G. J., T. H. Brown, B. R. Kempe, and R .K. Turnbull. 1988. Trace element and vitamin B12 status of sheep given an oral dose of one, two or four soluble glass pellets containing copper, selenium and cobalt. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 28:299-305.
  13. Jia, W., Z. Jia, W. Zhang, R. Wang, S. Zhang, and X. Zhu. 2008. Effects of dietary zinc on performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma zinc status in Cashmere goats. Small Rumin. Res. 80:68-72.
  14. Joy, M., G. Ripoll, and R. Delfa. 2008. Effects of feeding system on carcass and non carcass composition of Churra Tensina light lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 78:123-133.
  15. Kendall, N. R., A. M. Mackenzie, and S. B. Telfer. 2012. The trace element and humoral immune response of lambs administered a zinc, cobalt and selenium soluble glass bolus. Livest. Sci. 148:81-86.
  16. Krupinski, J. 2009. Meat Performance Evaluation According to the Methodology Using in European Union (in polish). National Research Institute of Animal Production, Krakow, Poland.
  17. Kuznicka, E. 2006. The effect of forced walking on slaughter value and meat quality of lambs: Linking up the meat chain: ensuring quality and safety for the consumer. Conference, Krakow, Poland, Anim. Sci. Vol. 1(Suppl.):162-164.
  18. Lachica, M. and J. Aguilera. 2005. Energy expenditure of walk in grassland for small ruminants. Small Rumin. Res. 59:105-121.
  19. Mavrogenis, A. P. and C. Papachristoforou. 2000. Genetic and phenotypic relationship between milk production and body weight in Chios sheep and Damascous goats. Livest. Prod. Sci. 67:81-87.
  20. McDowell, L. R. 1992. Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA.
  21. Morrissey, P. A., P. B. Quinn, and P. J. A. Sheehy. 1994. Newer aspects of micronutrients in chronic disease: Vitamin E. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 53:571-582.
  22. Onenc, S. S., M. Ozdogan, F. E. Atac, and T. Taskin. 2012. Fattening performance and carcass traits of Chios male lambs fed under traditional and intensive feeding conditions. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 44:1057-1062.
  23. Pena, F., T. Cano, V. Domenech, Ma.J. Alcalde, J. Martos, A. Garcia-Martinez, M. Herdera, and E. Roberto. 2005. Influence of sex, slaughter weight and carcass weight on "non-carcass and carcass" quality in Segurena lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 60: 247-254.
  24. Priolo, A., D. Micol, J. Agabriel, S. Prache, and E. Dransfield. 2002. Effect of grass or concentrate feeding systems on lamb carcass and meat quality. Meat Sci. 62:179-185.
  25. Quin, S., J. Gao, and K. Huang. 2007. Effects of different selenium sources on tissue selenium concentrations, blood GSH-Px activities and plasma interleukin levels in finishing lambs. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 116:91-102.
  26. Rao, S. V. R., B. Prakash, M. V. L. N. Raju, A. K. Panda, S. Poonam, and O. K. Murthy. 2013. Effect of supplementing organic selenium on performance, carcass traits, oxidative parameters and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 26:247-252.
  27. Rosa, H. J. D., O. A. Rego, L. R. Evangelho, C. C. G. Silava, A. E. S. Borba, and R. J. B. Bessa. 2009. Growth performance and carcass characteristic of Holstein bulls reared exclusively on grass or finished with ground maize. 60th Annual Meeting of European Federation of Animal Science, EAAP 2009. Session S05. 2009 August 24; Barcelona, Spain. p. 40.
  28. Schlegel-Zawadzka, M. 2011. Role of zinc in health. 11th European Nutrition Conference. 2011 October 26-29; Madrid, Spain. Programme, 18.
  29. Shi, L., W. Xun, W. Yue, C. Zhang, Y. Ren, L. Shi, Q. Wang, R. Yang, and F. Lei. 2011. Effect of sodium selenite, Se-yeast and ano-elemental selenium on growth performance, Se concentration and antioxidant status in growing male goats. Small Rumin. Res. 96:49-52.
  30. Skrivanova, S., M. Marounek, S. De Smet, and K., Raes. 2007. Influence of dietary selenium and vitamin E on quality of veal. Meat Sci. 76:495-500.
  31. SAS/STAT. 2010. User's Guide, version 9.2, SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  32. Tapiero, H., D. M. Townsend, and K. D. Tew. 2003. The antioxidant role of selenium and selenocompounds. Biomed. Pharmacother. 57:134-144.
  33. Tian, J. Z., M. S. Yun, C. S. Kong, L. G. Piao, H. F. Long, J. H. Lee, J. S. Lim, C. H. Kim, Y. Y. Kim, and In K. Han. 2006. Effect of different products and levels of selenium on growth, nutrient digestibility and selenium retention of drowing-finishing pigs. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 19:61-66.
  34. Vignola, G., L. Lambertini, G. Mazzone, M. Giammarco, M. Tassinari, G. Martelli, and G. Bertin. 2009. Effects of selenium source and level of supplemention on the performance and meat quality of lambs. Meat Sci. 81:678-685.