DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors

  • Mpakama, T. (Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare) ;
  • Chulayo, A.Y. (Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare) ;
  • Muchenje, V. (Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare)
  • Received : 2013.08.08
  • Accepted : 2013.11.23
  • Published : 2014.05.01

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour ($L^*$, $a^*$, and $b^*$) and ultimate pH ($pH_u$) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK ($705.3{\pm}80.57U/L$) and $pH_u$ ($6.3{\pm}0.05$) values while the Bonsmara had the highest $L^*$ ($24.8{\pm}0.78$) $a^*$ ($17.5{\pm}0.53$) and $b^*$ ($12.8{\pm}0.53$) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* $a^*$, and $b^*$) and CK levels.

References

  1. Voisinet, B. D., T. Grandin, S. F. O'Connor, J. D. Tatum, and M. J. Deesing. 1997. Bos indicus cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tough meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters. Meat Sci. 46:367-377. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(97)00031-4
  2. Viljoen, H. F., H. L. De Kock, and E. C. Webb. 2002. Consumer acceptability of dark, firm and dry (DFD) and normal pH beef steaks. Meat Sci. 61:181-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)00183-8
  3. Vimiso, P. 2010. Effects of marketing channel on bruising, ultimate pH and colour of beef; and stakeholder perception on quality of beef from cattle slaughtered at a small holder abattoir. MSc Thesis, University of Fort Hare, South Africa.
  4. Vimiso, P. and V. Muchenje, 2013. A survey on the effect of transport method on bruises, pH and colour of meat from cattle slaughtered at a South African commercial abattoir. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 43:105-111.
  5. Von Holleben, K., S. Henke, and T. Schmidt. 2009. Effect of transport time up to 8h on physiological and biochemical stress indicators and resulting carcass/meat quality in cattle - an integrated approach. Theatre presentation, 25th August, 60th Annual Meeting of EAAP, Barcelona, Spain. Book of Abstracts No 15. 243.p.
  6. Vojtic, I. 2000. Macro CK type 1 as a major component of serum creatine kinase activity in pregnant sheep. Small. Rumin. Res. 35:249-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(99)00093-0
  7. Warriss, P. D., S. N. Brown, T. G. Knowles, S. C. Kestin, J. E. Edwards, S. K. Dolan and A. J. Philips. 1995. The effects on cattle of transport by road for up to fifteen hours. Vet. Rec. 136:319-323. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.136.13.319
  8. Weeks, C. A., P. W. McNally, and P. D. Warriss. 2002. Influence of the design of facilities at auction markets and animal handling procedures on bruising in cattle. Vet. Rec. 150:743-748. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.150.24.743
  9. Wilson, B. W., P. S. Nieberg, R. J. Buhr, B. J. Kelly, and F. T. Shultz. 1990. Turkey muscle growth and focal myopathy. Poult. Sci. 69:1553-1562. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0691553
  10. Yu, J., S. Tang, E. Bao, M. Zhang, Q. Hao, and Z. Yue. 2009. The effect of transportation on the expression of heat shock proteins and meat quality of M. longissimus dorsi in pigs. Meat Sci. 83:474-478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.06.028
  11. Wulf, D. M., R. S. Emnett, J. M. Leheska, and S. J. Moeller. 2002. Relationship among glycolytic potential, dark cutting (dark, firm and dry) beef, and cooked beef palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1895-1903.
  12. Wythes, J. R. and W. R. Shorthose. 1991. Chronological age and dentition of effects on carcass and meat quality of cattle in Northern Australia. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 31:145-152. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA9910145
  13. Yeh, E., B. Anderson, P. N. Jones, and F. D. Shaw. 1978. Bruising in cattle transport over a long distance. Vet. Rec. 103:117-119. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.103.6.117
  14. Zhang, S. X., M. M. Farouk, O. A. Young, K. J. Wieliezco, and C. Podmore. 2005. Functional stability of frozen normal and high pH beef. Meat Sci. 69:765-772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.11.009
  15. Mounier, L., H. Dubroeucq, S. Andanson, and I.Veissier. 2006. Varriations in meat pH of beef bulls in relation to conditions of transfer to slaughter and previous history of the animals. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1567-1576.
  16. Muchenje, V., K. Dzama, M. Chimonyo, J. G. Raats, and P. E. Strydom. 2008. Meat quality of Nguni, Bonsmara and Aberdeen Angus steers raised on natural pasture in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Meat Sci. 79:20-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.07.026
  17. Muchenje, V., K. Dzama, M. Chimonyo, P. E. Strydom, and J. G. Raats. 2009. Relationship between pre-slaughter stress responsiveness and beef quality in three cattle breeds. Meat Sci. 81:653-657. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.11.004
  18. Ndlovu, T., M. Chimonyo, A. I. Okoh, and V. Muchenje. 2008. A comparison of stress hormone concentration at slaughter in Nguni, Bonsmara and Angus steers. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 3:96-100.
  19. Statistical Analysis System. 2003. In: SAS/STATT Guide to Personal Computers, Version 6, Statistical Analysis System Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA.
  20. Neal, R. C., K. C. Ferdinand, J. Ycas and E. Miller. 2009. Relationship of ethnic origin, gender, and age to blood creatine kinase levels. Am. J. Med. 122:73-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.08.033
  21. O'Neill, H. A., E. C. Webb, L. Frylinck, and P. E. Strydom. 2006. The stress responsiveness of three different beef breed types and the effect on ultimate pH and meat colour. In Proceedings 52nd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (pp.181-182). 13-18, August 2006, Dublin, Ireland.
  22. Parrot, R. F., B. H. Misson, and C. F. De la Riva. 1994. Differential stressors effects on the concentration of cortisol, prolactin and catecholamines in the blood of sheep. Res.Vet. Sci. 56:234-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-5288(94)90109-0
  23. Silva, J. A., L. Patarata, and C. Martins. 1999. Influence of ultimate pH on bovine meat tenderness during ageing. Meat Sci. 52:453-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00029-7
  24. Smith, S. A., S. J. Montain, R. P. Matott, G. P. Zientara, F. A. Jolesz, and R. A. Fielding. 1998. Creatine supplementation and age influence muscle metabolism during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 85:1349-1356.
  25. Steinhardt, M. and H. H. Thielscher. 1999. Maturity of suckler calves and dairy calves at the second and third week of postnatal age and forms of reaction of the animals to transport by road. Landbauforsch. Volk. 49:70-89.
  26. Strappini, A. C., J. H. M. Metz, G. Gallo, and B. Kemp. 2009. Origin and assessment of bruises in beef cattle at slaughter. Animal 3:728-736. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731109004091
  27. Strappini, A. C., K. Frankena, J. H. M. Metz, G. Gallo, and B. Kemp. 2010. Prevalence and risk factors for bruises in Chilean bovine carcasses. Meat Sci. 86:859-864. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.07.010
  28. Terlouw, C. 2005. Stress reactions at slaughter and meat quality in pigs: genetic background and prior experience. A brief review of recent findings. Livest. Prod. Sci. 94:125-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.11.032
  29. Knowles, T. G., P. D. Warriss, S. N. Brown, and J. E. Edward. 1998. Effects of stocking density on lambs being transported by road. Vet. Rec. 142:505-509.
  30. Van de Water, G., F. Verjans, and G. Geers. 2003. The effect of short distance transport under commercial conditions on the physiology of slaughter calves; pH and colour profiles of veal. Livest. Prod. Sci. 82:171-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(03)00010-1
  31. King, D. A., C. E. Schuehle Pfeiffer, R. D. Randel, T. H. Jr. Welsh, R. A. Oliphint, B. E. Baird, K. O. Jr. Curley, R. C. Vann, D. S. Hale, and J. W. Savell. 2006. Influence of animal temperament and stress responsiveness on the carcass quality and beef tenderness of feedlot cattle. Meat Sci. 74:546-556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.05.004
  32. Knowles, T. G. 1999. A review of the road transport of cattle. Vet. Rec.144:197-201. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.144.8.197
  33. Lawry, R. A. 1974. Meat science. 2nd edition. Oxford, Pergamon Press.
  34. Liu, Z. L., P. Chen, J. M. Li, S. B. Lin, D. M. Wang, L. P. Zhu, and D. P. Yang. 2008. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) moderate negative responses of heat stressed cows. Livest. Sci. 118:255-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.02.002
  35. Liste, M. G., G. A. Maria, S. Garcia-Belenguer, G. Chacon, P. Gazzola, and M. Villarroel. 2008. The effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on stress response in rabbits. World Rabbit Sci. 16:229-235.
  36. Lopez, O., I. Marco, J. Montane, and S. Lavin. 2006. Transport stress in Southern chamois (rupricapra pyrenaica) and its modulation by acepromazine. Vet. J. 172:347-355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2005.06.007
  37. Lowe, T. E., N. G. Gregory, A. D. Fisher, and S. P. Payne. 2002. The effects of temperate evaluation and water deprivation on lamb physiology welfare and meat quality. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 53:704-714.
  38. Marufu, M. C., L. Qokweni, M. Chimonyo, and K. Dzama. 2011. Relationships between tick counts and coat characteristics in Nguni and Bonsmara cattle reared on semiarid rangelands in South Africa. Ticks Tick Born. Dis. 2:172-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2011.07.001
  39. Mormede, P., H. Courvoisier, A. Ramos, N. Marissal-Avry, O. Ousova, and C. De 'saute's. 2002. Molecular genetics approaches to investigate individual variations in behavioural and neuroendocrine stress responses. Phychoneuroendocrinology 27:563-583. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4530(01)00093-2
  40. Minka, N. S. and. J. O. Ayo. 2007. Effects of loading behaviour and road transport stress on traumatic injuries in cattle transported by road during hot dry season. Livest. Sci. 107:91-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.10.013
  41. Miranda-de la Lama, G. C., W. S. Sepulveda, M. Villarroel, and G. A. Maria. 2011. Livestock vehicle accidents in Spain: causes, consequences, and affects on animal welfare. J. Appl. Anim. Welf. Sci. 14:109-123. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888705.2011.551622
  42. Miranda-de la Lama, G. C., M. Villarroel, G. Liste, J. Escos, and G. A. Maria. 2010. Critical points in the chain of (Please check again!) lamb in Spain that may compromise the animal's welfare. Small Rumin. Res. 90:174-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2010.02.011
  43. Morta-Rojas, D., M. Becerril, C. Lemus, P. Sanchez, M. Gonzalez, S. A. Olmos, R. Ramirez, and M. Alonso-Spilsbury. 2006. Effects of mid-summer duration on pre- and post-slaughter performance and pork quality in Mexico. Meat Sci. 73:404-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.11.012
  44. Fordyce, G., M. E. Goddard, R. Tyler, C. William, and M. A. Toleman. 1985. Temperament and bruising of Bos Indicus cross cattle. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 25:283-288. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA9850283
  45. Funghi, R., C. Pugliese, R. Bozzi, and M. Lucifero. 1994. Evolution of performances of Chianina young bull from 6-24 months. Quality parameters of meat. 81-86, Production. 7th International Congress on Italian beef cattle contest, Perugia, Italia.
  46. Gosalvez, L. F., X. Averos, J. J. Valdevira, and A. Herranz. 2006. Influence of season distance and mixed loads on physical and carcass integrity of pigs transported to slaughter. Meat Sci. 73:553-558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.02.007
  47. Grandin, T. 2001. Livestock handling and transport, 2nd edition, CAB International Wallingford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
  48. Gispert, M., L. Faucitano, M. A. Oliver, M. D. Guardia, C. Coll, K. Siggens, K. Harvey, and A. Diestre. 2000. A survey of pre-slaughter conditions, halothane gene frequency, and carcass and meat quality in five Spanish pig commercial abattoirs. Meat Sci. 55:97-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00130-8
  49. Gracey, J. F., D. S. Collins, and R. J. Huey. 1999. Meat Hygiene, 10th edition. Elsevier Health Science Publishers, United Kingdom.
  50. Grandin, T. 1997. Assessment of stress during handling and transport. J. Anim. Sci. 75:249-257.
  51. Grandin, T. 2007. Livestock Handling and Transport, 3rd Edition CAB International. Wallingford Oxford, United Kingdom.
  52. Gregory, N. G. 2010. How climatic changes could affect meat quality. Food Res. Int. 43:1866-1873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.05.018
  53. Grzyb, K. and E. F. Skorkowski. 2005. Characterization of creatine kinase isoforms in herring (Clupea harengus) skeletal muscle. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 140:629-634. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2005.01.003
  54. Guardia, M. D., J. Estany, S. Balasch, M. A. Oliver, M. Gispert, and A. Diestre. 2009. Risk assessement of skin damage due to pre-slaughter conditions and RYRL gene in pigs. Meat Sci. 81:745-751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.11.020
  55. Hemsworth, P. H., M. Rice, M. G. Karlen, L. Collega, J. N. Barnett, and G. J. Coleman. 2011. Human-animal interactions at abattoirs: Relationships between handling and animal stress in sheep and cattle. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 135:24-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2011.09.007
  56. Hoffman, L. and J. Luhl. 2012. Causes of cattle bruising during handling and transport in Namibia. Meat Sci. 92:115-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.04.021
  57. Huertas, S. M., A. D. Gil, J. M. Piaggio, and F. J. C. M. van Eerdenburg. 2010. Transportation of beef cattle to slaughterhouses and how this relates to animal welfare and carcase bruising in an extensive production system. Anim. Welf. 19:281-285.
  58. Beatty, D. T., A. Barnes, E. Taylor, D. Pethick, M. McCarthy, and S. K. Maloney. 2006. Physiological responses of Bos Taurus and Bos indicus cattle to prolonged, continuous heat and humidity. J. Anim. Sci. 84:972-985.
  59. Jarvis, A. M., L. Selkirk, and M. S. Cockram. 1995. The influence of source, sex class and pre-slaughter handling on the bruising of cattle at two slaughterhouses. Livest. Prod. Sci. 43:215-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(95)00055-P
  60. Kannan, G., Y. H. Terrill, B. Kouakow, O. S. Gazal, S. Gelaye, E. A. Amoah, and S. Samake. 2000. Transportation of goats: effects on physiological stress responses and live weight loss. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1450-1457.
  61. Bartos, L., C. France, D. Rehak, and L. Stipkova. 1993. A practical method to prevent dark cutting (DFD) in beef. Meat Sci. 34:275-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(93)90077-U
  62. Anderson, B. and J. C. Horder. 1979. The Australian carcass bruising scoring system. Queensl. Agric. J. 105:281-287
  63. Averos, A., S. Martin, M. Riu, J. Serratosa, and L. F. Gosalvez. 2008. Stress response of extensively reared young bulls being transported to growing-finishing farm under Spanish summer commercial conditions. Livest. Sci. 119:174-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.04.002
  64. Blood, D. C. and V. P. Studdert. 1988. Bailliere's Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary. BailliereTindall, 24-28 Oval Road London, NWI and DX, UK.
  65. Bonney, R. J. 2006. Farm animal welfare at work. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 100:140-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2006.04.007
  66. Broom, D. M., J. A. Goode, S. J. G. Hall, D. M. Lloyd, and R. F. Parrot. 1996. Hormonal and physiological effects of a 15- hour road journey in sheep: comparison with the responses to loading, handling and penning in the absence of transport. Br. Vet. J. 152:593-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1935(96)80011-X
  67. Devine, C. E., T. E. Lowe, R .W. Wells, N. J. Edwards, and J. E. H. Edwards. 2006. Pre-slaughter stress arising from on farm handling and its interactions with electrical stimulation on tenderness of lambs. Meat Sci. 73:304-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.12.005
  68. Chulayo, A. Y. and V. Muchenje. 2013. The effects of preslaughter stress and season on the activity of plasma creatine kinase and mutton quality from different sheep breeds slaughtered at a smallholder abattoir. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 26:1762-1772. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13141
  69. Chulayo, A. Y., O. Tada, and V. Muchenje. 2012. Research on preslaughter stress and meat quality: A review of challenges faced under practical conditions. Appl. Anim. Husb. Rural Dev. 5:1-6.
  70. Dalla Costa, O. A., L. Fauctitano, A. Coldebella, J. V. Ludke, J. V. Pelso, D. Dalla Roza, and M. J. R. Parranhos da Costa. 2007. Effect of the season of the year, truck type, and location on truck on skin bruises and meat quality in pigs. Livest. Sci. 107: 29-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.08.015
  71. Diene, C. A. and K. B. Storey. 2009. Creatine kinase regulation by reversible phosphorylation in frog muscle. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 152:405-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2009.01.012
  72. Early, B., M. Murray, and D. J. Prendiville. 2010. Effect of road transport for up to 24 hours followed by twenty-four hour recovery on live weight and physiological responses of bulls. BMC Vet. Res. 6:38. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-6-38
  73. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW), 2011. Scientific opinion concerning the welfare of animals during transport. EFSA J. 2011; 9:1966. pp. 125.
  74. Fazio, E. and A. Ferlazzo. 2003. Evaluation of stress during transport. Vet. Res. Commun. 27 (Suppl.):519-524. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:VERC.0000014211.87613.d9
  75. Fike, K. and M. F. Spire. 2006. Transportation of cattle. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 22:305-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2006.03.012

Cited by

  1. Effects of road transportation or droving on the weight and metabolism of young bulls vol.46, pp.8, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-014-0663-9
  2. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review vol.30, pp.6, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0037
  3. Prevalence of lung lesions in slaughtered cattle in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa vol.87, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v87i1.1362
  4. Causes and Contributing Factors to “Dark Cutting” Meat: Current Trends and Future Directions: A Review vol.16, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12258
  5. Bruises in beef cattle at slaughter in Mexico: implications on quality, safety and shelf life of the meat vol.49, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-016-1173-8
  6. Causes of bruising in carcasses of beef cattle during farm, transport, and slaughterhouse handling in Brazil vol.90, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.13151