DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

  • Santos, A.B. (Southwest State University of Bahia) ;
  • Pereira, M.L.A. (Southwest State University of Bahia) ;
  • Silva, H.G.O. (Southwest State University of Bahia) ;
  • Pedreira, M.S. (Southwest State University of Bahia) ;
  • Carvalho, G.G.P. (Federal University of Bahia) ;
  • Ribeiro, L.S.O. (Southwest State University of Bahia) ;
  • Almeida, P.J.P. (Southwest State University of Bahia) ;
  • Pereira, T.C.J. (Southwest State University of Bahia) ;
  • Moreira, J.V. (Southwest State University of Bahia)
  • Received : 2013.06.26
  • Accepted : 2013.12.29
  • Published : 2014.05.01

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was $42.6{\pm}6.1kg$ at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of $94.0{\pm}9.0days$ and a production of $1.7{\pm}0.4kg$ of milk were distributed in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis.

References

  1. Casali, A. O., E. Detmann, Valadares Filho, J. C. Pereira, L. T. Henriques, S. G. Freitas, and M. F. Paulino. 2008. Influence of incubation time and particles size on indigestible compounds contents in cattle feeds and feces obtained by in situ procedures. R. Bras. Zootec. 37:335-342. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982008000200021
  2. Argolo, L. S., M. L. A. Pereira, J. C. T. Dias, J. F. Cruz, A. J. Del Rei, and C. A. S. Oliveira. 2010. Mesquit pod meal in diets of lactating goats: ruminal parameters and microbial efficiency synthesis. R. Bras. Zootec. 39:541-548. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010000300013
  3. Belenguer, A., D. Yanez, J. Balcells, N. H. Ozdemir Baber, and M. Gonzalez Ronquillo. 2002. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives and prediction of rumen microbial outflow in goats. Livest. Prod. Sci. 77: 127-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00081-7
  4. Carvalho, G. G. P., R. Garcia, A. J. V. Pires, R. R. Silva, M. L. A. Pereira, P. T. Viana, A. B. Santos, and T. C. J. Pereira. 2010. Nitrogen balance, urea concentrations and microbial protein synthesis in goats fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide. R. Bras. Zootec. 39: 2253-2261. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010001000022
  5. Chen, X. B. and M. J. Gomes. 1992. Estimation of Microbial Protein Supply to Sheep and Cattle Based on Urinary Excretion of Purine Derivatives - An Overview of the Technical Details. International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, AB2 9SB, UK. (Occasional publication). p.21.
  6. Felisberto, N. R. O., M. T. Rodrigues, M. A. D. Bomfim, R. S. Matos, A. G. P. C. Cordeiro, and M. M. C. Silva. 2011. Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats. R. Bras. Zootec. 40:2228-2234. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011001000024
  7. Fonseca, C. E. M., R. F. D. Valadares, S. C. Valadares Filho, M. I. Leao, and M. I. Marcondes. 2008. Digestion of the nutrients and nitrogen compounds balance in goats fed with different levels of protein. Arq. Braz. Med. Vet. Zootec. 60:192-200. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352008000100027
  8. Jonker, J. S., R. A. Kohn, and R. A. Erdman. 1999. Milk urea nitrogen target concentrations for lactating dairy cows fed according to national research council recommendations. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1261-1273. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75349-X
  9. Fonseca, C. E. M., R. F. D. Valadares, S. C. Valadares Filho, M. I. Leao, P. R. Cecon, M. T. Rodrigues, D. S. Pina, M. I. Marcondes, M. L. Paixao, and A. M. Araujo. 2006. Microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed diets with increasing levels of dietary protein. R. Bras. Zootec. 35(Suppl.):1169-1177. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982006000400031
  10. Hall, M. B. 2003. Challenges with non-fiber carbohydrate methods. J. Anim. Sci. 81:3226-3232.
  11. Itavo, L. C. V., S. C. Valadares Filho, F. F. Silva, R. F. D. Valadares, M. F. Paulino, C. C. B. F. Itavo, and E. H. B. K. Moraes. 2002. Comparison of markers and collection methodology for fecal production and digesta flow estimates in bovine. R. Bras. Zootec. 31:1833-1839. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982002000700027
  12. Licitra, G., T. M. Hernandez, and P. J. Van Soest. 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fracionation of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57:347-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00837-3
  13. Mendes, C. Q., R. H. R. Fernandes, I. Susin, A. V. Pires, and R. S. Gentil. 2010. Partial replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea feeding of lactating goats. R. Bras. Zootec. 39:1818-1824. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010000800026
  14. Mertens, D. R. 2002. Gravimetric determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber in feeds with refluxing in beakers or crucibles: Collaborative study. J. AOAC Int. 85: 1217-1240.
  15. Murta, R. M., M. A. Chaves, A. J. V. Pires, C. M. Veloso, F. F. Silva, A. L. Rocha Neto, and A. Eustaquio Filho. 2011. Performance and nutrients apparent digestibility in sheep fed diets containing sugar cane bagasse treated with calcium oxide. R. Bras. Zootec. 40:1325-1332. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011000600022
  16. NRC (National Research Council). 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants. 1 ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA. p. 362.
  17. Neiva Junior, A. P., E. H. C. B. Van Cleef, and R. M. P. Pardo. 2007. Agroindustrial byproducts of biodiesel in ruminant feed. In: II Congress of the Brazilian Network Technology and Biodiesel Production, Brasilia, DF. Proceedings Brasilia, DF. RBTPB:1-6.
  18. NRC (National Research Council). 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7 ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA. p. 381.
  19. Nunes Irmao, J., M. P. Figueiredo, L. G. R. Pereira, J. Q. Ferreira, and J. L. Rech. 2008. Chemical composition of cassava stem and foliage hay in different harvesting ages. Rev. Bras. Saude Prod. An. 9:158-169.
  20. Oliveira, C. A. S. 2009. Mesquite pod meal in diets for lactating goats. State University of Southwest Bahia. p. 48.
  21. Pessoa, R. A. S., M. I. Leao, M. A. Ferreira, S. C. Valadares Filho, R. F. D. Valadares, and A. C. Queiroz. 2009. Nitrogenous compounds balance and microbial protein production in crossbred heifers fed forage cactus, sugar cane bagasse and urea associated to different supplements. R. Bras. Zootec. 38:941-947. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982009000500022
  22. Segundo, L. F. F., M. N. B. A. Araripe, and J.B. Lopes. 2006. Substitution of the Soybean Meal for Leucena Hay in the Feeding of Tilapia Fingerlings. Rev. Cient. Prod. Anim. 8:28-34.
  23. Silva, D. J. and A. C. Queiroz. 2002. Food analysis: Chemical and biological methods. Vicosa: Federal University of Vicosa.
  24. Tas, B. M. and A. Susenbeth. 2007. Urinary purine derivates excretion as an indicator of in vivo microbial N flow in cattle: A review. Livest. Sci. 111:181-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.05.010
  25. Valadares Filho, S. C. and D. S. Pina. 2006. Rumen fermentationl. Jaboticabal: Funep, pp. 151 -182.
  26. Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA. p. 476.
  27. Vasconcelos, A. M., M. I. Leao, S. C. Valadares Filho, R. F. D. Valadares, M. Dias, and D. A. E. F. Morais. 2010. Ruminal parameters, nitrogen compound balance and microbial production in dairy cows fed soybeans and their by-products. R. Bras. Zootec. 39:425-433. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010000200028
  28. Yu, P., A. R. Egan, L. Boon-Ek, and B. J. Leury. 2002. Purine derivative excretion and ruminal microbial yield in growing lambs fed raw and dry roasted legume seeds as protein supplements. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 95:33-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00314-5

Cited by

  1. Replacement of Tifton hay by spineless cactus in Girolando post-weaned heifers´ diets pp.1573-7438, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1415-4
  2. Effects of unsaturation of long-chain fatty acids on rumen protozoal engulfment and microbial protein recycling in protozoa in vitro vol.59, pp.4, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN17093