- Volume 20 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
The Role of Kinematics in Robot Development
로봇발전과 기구학의 역할
- Youm, Youngil (School of Mechanical&Advanced Material Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology)
- 염영일 (울산과학기술대학교 기계 및 신소재 공학부)
- Received : 2014.01.24
- Accepted : 2014.02.03
- Published : 2014.03.01
This is the survey paper on the role of kinematics in robot development. The robot is considered as a form of mechanical systems which includes closed-chain loop system, open-chain loop system and closed and open switching system. To analyze these systems, kinematic notations has been developed in kinematics of mechanical theory since 1955 and has been applied in robotics. Several kinematic notations including Denavit-Hartenberg notations have been reviewed. The status of development of the spherical motor which has a great impact on the future robot advancement has reviewed, and research activity on a spherical motor and its application to 3-D spatial mechanisms at UNIST is introduced. For the open and closed switching mechanical systems, the bipedal robots' walking theories using Zero Moment Point are reviewed. And current status regarding bipedal robots based on newly developed passive dynamic walking theory is reviewed with the research activity at UNIST on this subject.
- J. Adolfsson, H. Dankowicz, and A. Nordmark, "3D passive walkers: Finding periodic gaits in the presence o discontinuities," Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 205-229, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008300821973
- C. Chevallereau, G. Abba, Y. Aoustin, F. Plestan, E. R. Westervelt, C. C. de Wit, and J. W. Grizzle, "RABBIT: a testbed for advanced control theory," IEEE Control Syst. Mag., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 57-79, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1109/MCS.2003.1234651
- W. J. Chung, "New kinematic notation for the spatial mechanisms," Technical Report, Robotics Lab. (in Korean), POSTECH, 1989.
- W. K. Chung, Y. Youm, and S. D. Park, "Development of a heavyload handling robot and its pneumatic position servo controller," (3rd ISRAM, British Columbia, Canada, 1990) Robotics and Manufacturing, vol. 3, pp. 133-138, ASME Press, 1990.
- H. R. Choi, W. K. Chung, and Y. Youm, "Kinematic analysis of POSTECH Hand I with new symbolic notation," KACC Conference, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1764-1769, 1996.
- S. H. Collins, A. Ruina, R. Tedrake, and M. Wisse, "Efficient bipedal robots based on passive-dynamic walkers," Science, vol. 307, no. 5712, pp. 1082-1085, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1107799
- J. Denavit and R. S. Hartenberg, "Kinematic notations for lower-pair mechanisms based on matrices," Asme Trans. J. Applied Mechanics, vol. 77, series E, pp. 215-221, 1955.
- M. Garcia, A. Chatterjee, A. Ruina, and M. Coleman, "The simplest walking model: Stability, complexity, and scaling," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., vol. 120, pp. 281-288, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2798313
- R. C. Goertz, "Fundamentals of general-purpose remote manipulators," Nucleonics, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 36-45, 1952.
- A. Goswami, B. Espiau, and A. Keramane, "Limit cycles and their stability in a passive bipedal gait," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics Automation, vol. 1, pp. 246-251, Minneapolis, MN, 1996.
- A. Goswami, B. Thuilot, and B. Espiau, "A study of the passive gait of a compass-like biped robot: symmetry and chaos," Int. J. Robot. Res., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1282-1301, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1177/027836499801701202
- R. D. Gregg and M. W. Spong, "Reduction-based control of three-dimensional bipedal walking robots," Int. J. Robot. Res., vol. 26, pp. 680-702, 2010.
- J. W. Grizzle, J. Hurst, B. Morris, H.-W. Park, and K. Sreenath, "MABEL, a new robotic bipedal walker and runner," Proc. of Amer. Control Conf., pp. 2030-2036, St. Louis, MO, 2009.
- K. Hirai, M. Hirose, Y. Haikawa, and T. Takenaka, "The development of Honda humanoid robot," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics Automation, vol. 2, pp. 1321-1326, Leuven, Belgium, May 1998.
- D. G. Hobbelen and M. Wisse, Humanoid Robots: Human-like Machines, M. Hackel, Ed. InTech, pp. 277-294 2007.
- S. J. Kwon, Y. Youm, and W. K. Chung, "General algorithm for Automatic Generation of the workspace four-link redundant manipulators," ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, vol. 116, pp. 967-968, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2919478
- T. McGeer, "Stability and control of two-dimensional biped walking," Technical report CSS-IS TR 88-01), Simon Fraser University, Centre for Systems Science, Burnaby, Canada, 1988.
- T. McGeer, "Passive dynamic walking," Int. J. Robot. Res., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 62-82, 1990. https://doi.org/10.1177/027836499000900206
- T. A. McMahon, "Mechanics of locomotion," Int. J. Robot. Res., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 4-28, 1984. https://doi.org/10.1177/027836498400300202
- J.-S. Moon and M. W. Spong, "Classification of periodic and chaotic passive limit cycles for a compass-gait biped with asymmetries," Robotica, vol. 29, pp. 967-974, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0263574711000178
- J.-S. Moon, D. M. Stipanovic, and M. W. Spong, "Gait generation and stabilization for nearly passive dynamic walking and speed regulation on flat ground," Submitted, 2013.
- I.-W. Park, J.-Y. Kim, J. Lee, and J.-H. Oh, "Mechanical design of the humanoid robot platform, HUBO," Advanced Robotics, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1305-1322, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1163/156855307781503781
- R. P. Paul, "Robot manipulators: mathematics, programming and control," MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1981.
- D. L Pieper, "The kinematics of manipulators under control," Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford University, 1968.
- P. T. Piiroinen, H. J. Dankowicz, and A. B. Nordmark, "On a normal-form analysis for a class of passive bipedal walkers," Int. J. Bifurcation and Chaos, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 2411-2425, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218127401003462
- F. Reuleaux, "Kinematics of machinery; outlines of theory of machines," 1875, later Translated and edited by B. W. Alexander and C. E. Kennedy and with a new introduction by Eugene S. Ferguson, Dover Publications, INC. 1963.
- T. B Sheridan, "Supervisory control of remote maniuplators, vehicles and dynamic processes," In Rouse, W. B. (Ed.) Advance in Man-Machine Systems Research, vol. 1. NY: JAI Press, 49-137, 1984.
- P. N. Sheth and J. J. Uicker, "A Genralized symbolic notation for mechanism," ASME Trans. J. Engineering of Industry, vol. 93, pp. 102-117, 1971. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3427855
- H. Son and K. M. Lee, "Open-loop controller design and dynamic characteristics of a spherical wheel motor," IEEE Trans on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 3475-3482, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2009.2039454
- H. Son, J. Guo, and D. H. Kim, "Effects of magnetic pole design on orientation torque for a spherical motor," IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1420-1425, Aug. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMECH.2013.2242900
- M. W. Spong, "Passivity based control of the compass gait biped," Proc. of IFAC Triennial World Congr., vol. 3, pp. 19-23, Beijing, China, 1999.
- M. W. Spong and F. Bullo, "Controlled symmetries and passive walking," IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr., vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1025-1031, Jul. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAC.2005.851449
- J. J. Uicker, J. Denavit, and R. S. Hartenberg, "An Iterative method for the displacement analysis of spatial mechanisms," ASME Trans., J. Applied Mechanic, vol. 86, Series E, pp. 309-314, 1964.
- M. Vukobratovic and D. Juricic, "Contribution the synthesis of biped gait," Proc. of IFAC Symp. Technical and Biologicl Problem on Control, Erevan, USSR 1968.
- M. Vukobratovic and Y. Stepanenko, "On the stability of anthropomorphic systems," Mathematical Biosciences, vol. 15, pp. 1-37, 1972. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-5564(72)90061-2
- E. R. Westervelt, J. W. Grizzle, and D. E. Koditschek, "Hybrid zero dynamics of planar biped walkers," IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr., vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 42-56, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAC.2002.806653
- S. N. Yadukumar, M. Pasupuleti, and A. D. Ames, "Human-inspired underactuated bipedal robotic walking with AMBER on at-ground, up-slope and uneven terrain," Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robots Systems, pp. 2478-2483, Vilamoura, Portugal, 2012.
- T. C. Yih, T. C. and Y. Youm, "Matrix solution for the inverse kinematics of robots," Proceedings Trends and Developments in Mechanisms, Machines, and Robotics, vol. 3, pp. 371-376, 1988.
- Y. Youm, Y., T. C. Huang, E. M. Roberts, and R. Zernicke, "Mechanics of kicking," Mechanics of Sports-ASME, Ed. A. Burstein: pp. 183-195, 1974.
- Y. Y. Youm and T. C. Huang, "Exact displacement analysis of four bar spatial mechanisms by the direction cosine matrix method," Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 51, pp. 921-928, 1984. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3167747
- Y. Youm and T. C. Huang, "Exact displacement analysis of XCCC spatial mechanisms," J. of Mechanisms and Machine Theory, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 85-96, 1990. https://doi.org/10.1016/0094-114X(90)90109-W
- Vision-based Kinematic Modeling of a Worm's Posture vol.21, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5302/J.ICROS.2015.14.0120