- Volume 27 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Barodon, an Anionic Alkali Mineral Complex, on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Innate Immunity, Goblet Cell and Digestibility in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
- Shin, Chang-Hoon (Department of Animal Life system, Kangwon National University) ;
- Cha, Ji-Hoon (Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University) ;
- Rahimnejad, Samad (Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University) ;
- Jeong, Joon-Bum (Department of Aquatic Biomedical Science, Jeju National University) ;
- Yoo, Byung-Woo (Cargill Agri Purina Inc, Seongnam) ;
- Lee, Bo-Kyeun (Cargill Agri Purina Inc, Seongnam) ;
- Ahn, Hyung-Jin (Cargill Agri Purina Inc, Seongnam) ;
- Choi, Soo-Il (Barodon - S.F. Corp.) ;
- Choi, Yun-Jeong (Barodon - S.F. Corp.) ;
- Park, Yong-Ho (College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University) ;
- Kim, Jeong-Dae (Department of Animal Life system, Kangwon National University) ;
- Lee, Kyeong-Jun (Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University)
- Received : 2013.08.08
- Accepted : 2013.10.20
- Published : 2014.03.01
A 15-wk feeding trial was conducted to examine the supplemental effects of Barodon on growth performance, gastrointestinal histology, feed digestibility and innate immunity in olive founder. A basal commercial diet was used as a control and two other diets were prepared by spraying 0.1% or 0.2% of Barodon. Triplicate groups of fish (BW, 145 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily. At the end of the feeding trial, fish growth performance was not significantly affected by dietary treatments; however, feed utilization was significantly improved (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) by Barodon supplementation. Significantly higher (p<0.05) survival rates were obtained in fish fed Barodon containing diets. Hepatosomatic index increased significantly in Barodon treated groups. Also, the use of Barodon resulted in significant increase (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) of intestine length and number of goblet cells. Significantly higher (Quadratic, p<0.05) apparent digestibility coefficient of DM was obtained by supplementation of Barodon. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities increased quadratically and linearly, respectively, in Barodon treated fish. Also, significantly higher (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity was found in Barodon fed fish. The findings in this study show that inclusion of Barodon in diets for olive flounder improves feed utilization and digestibility, and positively affects digestive tract histology and innate immunity.
Olive Flounder;Barodon;Growth;Gastrointestinal Histology;Nutrient Digestibility;Innate Immunity
- Allen, A., D. A. Hutton, A. J. Leonard, J. P. Pearson, and L. A. Sellers. 1986. The role of mucus in the protection of the gastroduodenal mucosa. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 21:71-78.
- Carlisle, E. M. 1970. A relationship between silicon and calcium in bone formation. Fed. Proc. 29:565.
- Anderson, D. P. and A. K. Siwicki. 1995. Basic haematology and serology for fish health programs. In: Diseases in Asian aquaculture II (Ed. M. Shariff, J. R. Arthur, and R. P. Subasinghe). Fish health section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, pp. 185-202.
- Ardo, L., G. Yin, P. Xu, L. Varadi, G. Szigeti, Z. Jeney, and G. Jeney. 2008. Chinese herbs Astragalus membranaceus and Lonicera japonica and boron enhance the non-specific immune response of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila. Aquaculture 275:26-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.12.022
- Carlisle, E. M. 1969. Silicon localization and calcification in developing bone. Fed. Proc. 28: 374.
- Carnevali, O., M. C. Zamponi, R. Sulpizio, A. Rollo, M. Nardi, C. Orpianesi, S. Silvi, M. Caggiano, A. M. Polzonetti, and A. Cresci. 2004. Administration of probiotic strain to improve sea bream wellness during development. Aquacult. Int. 12:377-386. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AQUI.0000042141.85977.bb
- Castano-Sanchez, C., K. Fuji, A. Ozaki, O. Hasegawa, T. Sakamoto, K. Morishima, I. Nakayama, A. Fujiwara, T. Masaoka, H. Okamoto, K. Hayashida, M. Tagami, J. Kawai, Y. Hayashizaki, and N. Okamoto. 2010. A second generation genetic linkage map of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). BMC Genomics 11:554. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-11-554
- Divakaran, S., G. O. Leonard, and P. E. Ian. 2002. Note on the methods for determination of chromic oxide in shrimp feeds. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 50:464-467. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011112s
- Divyagnaneswari, M., D. Christybapita, and R. D. Michael. 2007. Enhancement of nonspecific immunity and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus by Solanum trilobatum leaf fractions. Fish Shell. Immunol. 23:249-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2006.09.015
- Domeneghini, C., S. Arrighi, G. Radaelli, G. Bosi, and A. Veggetti. 2005. Histochemical analysis of glycoconjugate secretion in the alimentary canal of Anguilla anguilla L. Acta Histochemica 106:477-487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2004.07.007
- Ellis, A. E. 1990. Serum antiprotease in fish. In: Techniques in Fish Immunology (Ed. J. S. Stolen, T. C. Fletcher, D. P. Anderson, B. S. Roberson, and W. B. Van Muiswinker). SOS Publication, Fair Haven, New Jersey, USA, pp. 95-99.
- Exley, C., O. Korchazhkina, D. Job, S. Strekopytov, A. Polwartand, and P. Crome. 2006. Noninvasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease. J. Alzheimers Dis. 10:17-24.
- FAO, 2010. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
- Gannam, A. L. and R. M. Schrock. 2001. Immunostimulants in fish diets. In: Nutrition and Fish Health. Food Products Press (Ed. C. Lim and C. D. Webster). Food Products Press, New York, USA, pp. 235-266.
- Gargiulo, A. M., P. Ceccarelli, C. Dall'Aglio, and V. Pedini. 1998. Histology and ultrasturucture of the gut of the tilapia (Tilapia spp.), a hybrid teleost. Anat. Histol. Embryol. 27:89-94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0264.1998.tb00162.x
- Hofer, R. and F. Schiemer. 1981. Proteolytic activity in the digestive tract of several species of fish with different feeding habits. Oecologia 48:342-345. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00346492
- Hultmark, D. 1980. Insert immunity: purification and properties of three inducible bactericidal proteins from hemolymph of immunized pupae of Hyalophora cecropia. Eur. J. Biochem. 106:7-16.
- Jurkic, L. M., L. Cepanec, S. K. Pavelic, and K. Pavelic. 2013. Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid releasing compounds: new perspectives for therapy. Nutr. Metab. 10:2. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-10-2
- Kumari, J. and P. K. Sahoo. 2006. Dietary levamisole modulates the immune response and disease resistance of Asian catfish Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus). Aquacult. Res. 37:500-509. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2006.01456.x
- Kang, J. H., W. J. Kim, and W. J. Lee. 2008. Genetic linkage map of olive flounder, paralichthys olivaceus. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 4: 143-149.
- Kim, J. J. and W. I. Khan. 2013. Goblet cells and mucins: Role in innate defense in enteric infections. Pathogens 2:55-70. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens2010055
- Koo, H. C., S. H. Ryu, H. J. Ahn, W. K. Jung, Y. K. Park, N. H. Kwon, S. H. Kim, J. M. Kim, B. W. Yoo, and S. I. Choi. 2006. Iuunostimulatory effects of the anionic alkali mineral complex Barodon on Equine lymphocyte. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13: 1255-1266. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00150-06
- Lauzon, H. L., B. Margeirsson, K. Sveinsdottir, M. Gudjonsdottir, M. G. Karlsdottir, and E. Martinsdottir. 2010. Overview on fish quality research: impact of fish handling, processing, storage and logistics on fish quality deterioration. Skyrsla Matis 39-10, 70 p.
- Lavin, S. R., W. H. Karasov, A. R. Ives, K. M. Middleton, and T. Garland Jr. 2008. Morphometrics of the avian small intestine, compared with non-flying mammals: a phylogenetic approach. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 81:526-550. https://doi.org/10.1086/590395
- Magnadottir, B., H. Jonsdottir, S. Helgason, B. Bjornsson, T. Jorgensen, and L. Pilstro. 1999. Humoral immune parameters in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L) I: the effects of environmental temperature. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 122:173-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-0491(98)10156-6
- Munilla-Moran, R. and F. Saborido-Rey. 1996a. Digestive enzymes in marine species. I. Proteinase activities in gut from redfish (Sebastes mentella), seabream (Sparus aurata) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 113:395-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(95)02057-8
- Olsson, J., M. Quevedo, C. Colson, and R. Svanback. 2007. Gut length plasticity in perch: into the bowels of resource polymorphisms. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 90:517-523. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00742.x
- Munilla-Moran, R. and F. Saborido-Rey. 1996b. Digestive enzymes in marine species. II. Amylase activities in gut from seabream (Sparus aurata), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and redfish (Sebastes mentella). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 113:827-834. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(95)02101-9
- Murray, H. M., G. M. Wright, and G. P. Goff. 1996. A comparative histological and histochemical study of the post gastric alimentary canal from three species of pleuronectids, the Atlantic halibut, the yellowtail flounder and the winter flounder. J. Fish Biol. 48:187-206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1996.tb01112.x
- Naya, D. E., W. H. Karasov, and F. Bozinovic. 2007. Phenotypic plasticity in laboratory mice and rats: Meta-analysis of current ideas on gut size flexibility. Evol. Ecol. Res. 9:1363-1374.
- Osman, A. H. K. and T. Caceci. 1991. Histology of the stomach of Tilapia nilotica (Linnaeus, 1758) from the River Nile. J. Fish Biol. 38:211-223. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1991.tb03107.x
- Park, B. K., Y. H. Park, and K. S. Seo. 2000. Relation between lymphocyte subpopulations of peripheral blood and immune responses of modified live hog cholera virus vaccine in pigs treated with an ionized alkali mineral complex. J. Vet. Sci. 1:49-52.
- Quade, M. J. and J. A. Roth. 1997. A rapid, direct assay to measure degranulation of bovine neutrophil primary granules. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 58:239-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-2427(97)00048-2
- Ricklefs, R. E. 1996. Morphometry of the digestive tracts of some passerine birds. The Condor 98:279-292. https://doi.org/10.2307/1369146
- Sabapathy, U. and L. H. Teo. 1995. Some properties of the intestinal proteases of the rabbitfish, Siganus canaliculatus (Park). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 14:215-221. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00004312
- Siwicki, A. K. and D. P. Anderson. 1993. Nonspecific defense mechanisms Assay in fish. In: II. Potential killing activity of neutrophils and macrophages, lysozyme activity in serum and organs and total immunoglobulin level in serum (Ed. A. K. Siwicki, D. P. Anderson, and J. Waluga). Fish Disease Diagnosis and Prevention Methods, Olsztyn, Poland, pp. 105-112.
- Sahu, S., B. K. Das, B. K. Mishra, J. Pradhan, and N. Sarangi. 2007. Effect of Allium sativum on the immunity and survival of Labeo rohita infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 23:80-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00785.x
- Sakai, M. 1999. Current research status of fish immunostimulants. Aquaculture 172:63-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00436-0
- Secombes, C. J. 1996. The nonspecific immune system: cellular defenses. In: The fish immune system. Organism, pathogen and environment (Ed. G. Iwama and T. Nakanishi). Academic press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 63-101.
- Smith, B. L. 1993. Analysis of hair element levels by age, sex, race, and hair color. In: In trace elements in man and animals, TEMA 8 (Ed. M. Anke, D. Meissner and C. F. Mills). Kluwer, New York, USA, pp. 1091-1093.
- Starck, J. M. 1999. Structural flexibility of the gastro-intestinal tract of vertebrates: implications for evolutionary morphology. Zool. Anz. 238:87-101.
- Swain, P., S. Dash, P. K. Sahoo, P. Routray, S. K. Sahoo, S. D. Gupta, P. K. Meher, and N. Sarangi. 2007. Non-specific immune parameters of brood Indian major carp Labeo rohita and their seasonal variations. Fish Shell. Immunol. 22:38-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2006.03.010
- Watanabe, T., V. Kiron, and S. Satoh. 1997. Trace minerals in fish nutrition. Aquaculture 151:185-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(96)01503-7
- Wu, G., C. Yuan, M. Shen, J. Tang, Y. Gong, D. Li, F. Sun, C. Huang, and X. Han. 2007. Immunological and biochemical parameters in carp Cyprinus carpio after Qompsell feed ingredients for long-term administration. Aquacult. Res. 38: 246-255. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2007.01660.x
- Yoo, B. W., S. I. Choi, S. H. Kim, S. J. Yang, H. C. Koo, N. H. Kwon, S. H. Seo, B. K. Park, H. S. Yoo, and Y. H. Park. 2001. Immunostimulatory effects of anionic alkali mineral complex solution Barodon in porcine lymphocytes. J. Vet. Sci. 2:15-24.
- Yoo, B. W., S. I. Choi, S. H. Kim, S. J. Yang, H. C. Koo, N. H. Kown, S. H. Seo, B. K. Park, H. S. Yoo, and Y. H. Park. 2002. Immunostimulatory effects of an anionic alkali mineral complex solution Barodon on porcine lymphocytes. J. Swine. Health. Prod. 10:265-270.