Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus

  • Kholif, A.E. (Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre) ;
  • Khattab, H.M. (Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University) ;
  • El-Shewy, A.A. (Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre) ;
  • Salem, A.Z.M. (Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico) ;
  • Kholif, A.M. (Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre) ;
  • El-Sayed, M.M. (Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre) ;
  • Gado, H.M. (Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University) ;
  • Mariezcurrena, M.D. (Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico)
  • Received : 2013.07.08
  • Accepted : 2013.09.26
  • Published : 2014.03.01


The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW $23.8{\pm}0.4$ kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate $3{\times}3$ Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health.


  1. AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
  2. Araba, M. and N. M. Dale. 1990. Evaluation of protein solubility as an indicator of over processing of soybean meal. Poult. Sci. 69:76-83.
  3. Boyd, J. W. 2011. The interpretation of serum biochemistry test results in domestic animals. In: Veterinary Clinical Pathology, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.
  4. Cannon, D. C., I. Olitzky, and J. A. Inkpen. 1974. Proteins. In: Clinical Chemistry Principles and Techniques, 2nd Edition (Ed. R. J. Henry, D. C. Cannon, and J. W. Winkelman). Harper & Row, Publishers, Hagerstown, MD, pp. 411-421.
  5. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:1-42.
  6. Chahal, P. S. and D. S. Chahal. 1998. Lignocellulose waste: biological conversion. In: Bioconversion of waste materials to industrial products, 2nd ed (Ed. A. M. Martin). Blackie Academic and Professional, London. pp. 376-422.
  7. Clark, J. H., H. R. Spires, R. G. Derring, and M. R. Bennink. 1977. Milk production, nitrogen utilization and glucose synthesis in lactating cows infused postruminally with sodium caseinate and glucose. J. Nutr. 107:631-644.
  8. Dumas, B. T. and H. G. Biggs 1972. Standards methods of clinical chemistry. vol. 7. Academic Press, New York. p. 175.
  9. Fazaeli, H. and A. R. Talebian Masoodi. 2006. Spent wheat straw compost of Agaricus bisporus mushroom as ruminant feed. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:845-851.
  10. Fazaeli, H., Z. A. Jelan, A. Azizi, J. B. Liang, H. Mahmodzadeh, and A. Osman. 2002. Effects of fungal treatment on the nutritive value of wheat straw. Malaysian J. Anim. Sci. 7:61-71.
  11. Ferret, A., J. Plaixats, G. Caja, J. Gasa, and P. Prio. 1999. Using markers to estimate apparent dry matter digestibility, faecal output and dry matter intake in dairy ewes fed Italian ryegrass hay or alfalfa hay. Small Rum. Res. 33:145-152.
  12. Flatt, W. P., R. G. Warner, and J. K. Loosli. 1956. Absorption of VFA from reticulo rumen of young dairy calves. J. Exp.Biol. 25:135.
  13. Henry, J. B., Todd, Sanford and Davidsohn. 1974. Clinical Diagnosis and Measurement by Laboratory Methods, 16th ed., W. B. Saunders and Co. Philadelphia PA. p. 260.
  14. Kim, Y. I., W. M. Cho, S. K. Hong, Y. K. Oh, and W. S. Kwak. 2011. Yield, nutrient characteristics, ruminal solubility and degradability of spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrates for ruminants. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 24:1560-1568.
  15. Howanitz, P. J. and J. H. Howanitz. 1984. Carbohydrates. In: Clinical diagnosis and management by laboratory methods (Ed. J. B. Henry). W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia. USA. pp. 168-169.
  16. ISO-IDF. 2002. Milk fat-preparation of fatty acid methyl esters. International Standard ISO 15884-IDF 182: 2002.
  17. Khattab, H. M., H. M. Gado, A. E. Kholif, A. M. Mansour, and A. M. Kholif. 2011. The potential of feeding goats sun dried rumen contents with or without bacterial inoculums as replacement for berseem clover and the effects on milk production and animal health. Int. J. Dairy Sci. 6:267-277.
  18. Kumar, N. U., B. Singh, and D. N. Verma. 1980. Effect of different levels of dietary protein and energy on growth of male buffalo calves. Ind. J. Anim. Sci. 51:513.
  19. Makkar, H. P. S., O. P. Sharma, R. K. Dawra, and S. S. Negi. 1982. Simple determination of microbial protein in rumen liquor. J. Dairy Sci. 65:2170-2173.
  20. Mesquita, I. V. U., Roberto Germano Costa, Rita de Cassia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga; Ariosvaldo Nunes de Medeiros, and Alexandre Ricardo Pereira Schuler. 2008. Profile of milk fatty acids from moxoto goats fed with different levels of manicoba (Manihot GlazioviiMuel Arg.) silage. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 51:1163-1169.
  21. NRC, 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th ed. National Academy Press, Washington D.C.
  22. Palmonari, A., D. M. Stevenson, D. R. Mertens, C. W. Cruywagen, and P. J. Weimer. 2010. pH dynamics and bacterial community composition in the rumen of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93:279-287.
  23. Oba, M. and M. S. Allen. 2003. Effects of diet fermentability on efficiency of microbial nitrogen production in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 86:195-207.
  24. Oei, P. 2005. Small scale mushroom cultivation, first ed. Digigrafi, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  25. Owens, F. N. and W. G. Bergen. 1983. Nitrogen metabolism of ruminant animals: historical perspective, current understanding and future implications. J. Anim. Sci. 57:498-518.
  26. Rabinovich, M. L., A. V. Bolobova, and Vasil'chenko. 2004. Fungal decomposition of natural aromatic structures and xenobiotics: a review. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 40:1-17.
  27. Reitman, S. and S. Frankel. 1957. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28:56-63.
  28. Roseler, D. K., J. D. Ferguson, C. J. Sniffen, and J. Herrema, 1993. Dietary protein degradability effects on plasma and milk urea nitrogen and milk nonprotein nitrogen in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:525-534.
  29. Sahloul, T. M., H. M. Emara, F. E. El-Deeb, E. F. Aboueladab, and D. H. El-Bushuty. 2010. Cultivation of mushroom using the environment residues at home and maximizing the utilization of nutrition and health. J. Agric. Biotech. 1:157-166.
  30. Singh, K., S. N. Rai, Rakatan, and Y. W. Han. 1990. Biochemical profiles of solid state fermented wheat straw with Coprinus fimetarius. Ind. J. Dairy Sci. 60:984-990.
  31. Spierto, F. W., M. L. McNeil, and C. A. Burtis. 1979. The effect of temperature and wavelength on the measurement of creatinine with the jaffe procedure. Clin. Biochem. 12:18-21.
  32. SAS Institute Inc. 2001. SAS/STAT user's guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.
  33. Scheletter, G. and E. Nussel. 1975. Quantitative enzymatic Colorimetric determination of triglycerides in serum or plasma. Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Pracentimed 10: 25.
  34. Sjaunja, L. O., L. Baevre, L. Junkkarinen, J. Pedersen, and J. Setala 1991. A nordic proposal for an energy corrected milk (ECM) formula, in EAAP publication no. 50: performance recording of animals: state of the art, proceedings of the 27th biennial session of the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR), Paris 2-6 July (ed. JAM van Arendonk). Wageningen Academic, The Netherlands.
  35. Steele, P., A. El-Hissewy, and A. E. Badawi 2009. Technical Manual: Agro-Industrial Use of Rice Straw. FAO. Project TCP/EGY/3102 straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil-plant system. Chemosphere 75:781-787.
  36. Stein, E. A. 1986. Textbook of chemical chemistry (Ed. N. W. Tiez). W. B. Saunder, Philadelphia. pp. 879-886.
  37. Tawffek, J. A. 2011. Comparison study between using two kinds of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom for improving barley straw. J. Food Industries Nutr. Sci. 1:71-74.
  38. Tomlinson, D. L., R. E. James, G. L. Bethard, and M. L. McGilliard. 1997. Influence of undegradability of protein in the diet on intake, daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition of Holstein heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 80:943-948.
  39. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  40. Warner, A. C. J. 1964. Production of volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Methods of Measurements. Nutr. Abst. Rev. 34:339-352.
  41. Wright, T. C., S. Moscardini, P. H. Luimes, P. Susmel, and B. W. McBride. 1998. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein and feed intake on nitrogen balance and milk protein production in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:784-793.

Cited by

  1. Influence of cellulase addition to dairy goat diets on digestion and fermentation, milk production and fatty acid content vol.153, pp.08, 2015,
  2. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats vol.28, pp.8, 2015,
  3. Rumen adaptation of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) by high level of urea supplementation when fed on rice straw-based diet vol.48, pp.6, 2016,
  4. Effect of Supplementing Diets of Anglo-Nubian Goats with Soybean and Flaxseed Oils on Lactational Performance vol.64, pp.31, 2016,
  5. Effect of Exogenous Fibrolytic Enzymes on Ruminal Fermentation and Gas Production by RUSITEC, in vitro Abomasum and Ileum Digestibility vol.13, pp.8, 2017,
  6. Dietary Chlorella vulgaris microalgae improves feed utilization, milk production and concentrations of conjugated linoleic acids in the milk of Damascus goats vol.155, pp.03, 2017,
  7. Strategic supplementation of cassava top silage to enhance rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows in the tropics vol.50, pp.7, 2018,
  8. fermented rice straw on growth, blood, and rumen fluid parameters in Barbados sheep vol.46, pp.1, 2018,