DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

  • Chen, Lei (Institute of Ensiling and Processing of Grass, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University) ;
  • Guo, Gang (Institute of Ensiling and Processing of Grass, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University) ;
  • Yuan, Xianjun (Institute of Ensiling and Processing of Grass, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University) ;
  • Shimojo, Masataka (Laboratory of Animal Feed Science, Division of Animal Science, Department of Animal and Marine Bioresource Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University) ;
  • Yu, Chengqun (Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences) ;
  • Shao, Tao (Institute of Ensiling and Processing of Grass, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2013.07.02
  • Accepted : 2013.09.14
  • Published : 2014.03.01

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (> $10^5$ cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (< $10^5$ cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage.

Keywords

Molasses;Propionic Acid;Fermentation Quality;Aerobic Stability;Whole-plant Corn TMR

References

  1. Alli, I., R. Fairbairn, E. Noroozi, and B. E. Baker. 1984. The effects of molasses on the fermentation of chopped whole-plant leucaena. J. Sci. Food Agric. 35:285-289. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740350307
  2. Bayatkouhsar, J., A. M. Tahmasebi, and A. A. Naserian. 2011. The effects of microbial inoculation of corn silage on performance of lactating dairy cows. J. Livest. Sci. 142:170-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.07.007
  3. AOAC. 1984. Official methods of analysis. 14th ed., Association of Official and Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  4. Barker, S. B. and W. H. Summerson. 1941. The colorimetric determination of lactic acid in biological material. J. Biol. Chem. 138:535-554.
  5. Basso, F. C., T. F. Bernardes, A. P. D. T. P. Roth, B. N. Lodo, T. T. Berchielli, and R. A. Reis. 2012. Fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri. R. Bras. Zootec. 41:1789-1794. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982012000700032
  6. Baytok, E., T. Aksu, M. A. Karsli, and H. Muruz. 2005. The effects of formic acid, molasses an inoculant as silage additives on corn silage composition and ruminal fermentation characteristics in sheep. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 29:469-474.
  7. Bolsen, K. K., G. Ashbell, and Z. Weinberg. 1996. Silage fermentation and silage additives - review -. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 9:483-493. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1996.483
  8. Britt, D. G., J. T. Huber, and A. L. Rogers. 1975. Fungal growth and acid production during fermentation and refermentation of organic acid treated corn silages. J. Dairy Sci. 58:532-539. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(75)84603-0
  9. Broderick, G. A. and J. H. Kang. 1980. Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. J. Dairy Sci. 63:64-75. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)82888-8
  10. Duan, Y. H., Z. F. Tan, Y. P. Wang, Z. W. Li, Z. Y. Li, G. Y. Qin, Y. P. Huo, and Y. M. Cai. 2008. Identification and 2 Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tibetan Qula cheese. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 54:51-60. https://doi.org/10.2323/jgam.54.51
  11. Horii S., Y. Kurata, Y. Hayashi, and S. Tanabe. 1971. Physicochemical analytical method for nutritional experiments. In: Animal Nutrition Testing Method, 1st edn (Ed. H. Morimoto), Yokendo, Tokyo, 280-298.
  12. Fraser, M. D., R. Fychan, and R. Jones. 2000. Voluntary intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization by sheep fed ensiled forage legumes. Grass Forage Sci. 55:271-279. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2494.2000.00225.x
  13. Haigh, P. M. 1990. Effect of herbage water-soluble carbohydrate content and weather conditions at ensilage on the fermentation of grass silages made on commercial farms. Grass Forage Sci. 45:263-271. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1990.tb01949.x
  14. Hara, S. and Y. Ohyama. 1978. Propionic acid application in preventing aerobic deterioration of silage, with references to the relationship to moisture content and additive tolerant microorganisms. Jpn. J. Zootech. Sci. 49:794-801.
  15. Huber, J. T. and M. Soejono. 1977. Organic acid treatment of high dry matter corn silage fed to lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 59:2063-2070.
  16. Krishnamoorthy, U., T. V. Muscato, C. J. Sniffen, and P. J. Van Soest. 1982. Nitrogen fractions in selected feedstuffs. J. Dairy Sci. 65:217-225. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82180-2
  17. Moon, N. J. 1983. Inhibition of the growth of acid tolerant yeasts by acetate, lactate and propionate, and their synergistic mixture. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 55:453-460. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1983.tb01685.x
  18. Muck, R. E. and L. Kung. Jr. 1997. Effects of silage additives on ensiling. In: Proceedings of the Silage: Field to feed bunk, North American Conference, Hershey PA USA: Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service. pp: 187-199.
  19. McDonald, P., A. R. Henderson, and S. J. E. Heron. 1991. The biochemistry of silage, 2nd edition. Chalcombe Publications, Bucks, UK. pp. 81-166.
  20. Ranjit, N. K and Jr. L. Kung. 2000. The effect of lactobacillus buchneri, lactobacillus plantarum, or a chemical preservative on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage. J. Dairy Sci. 83:526-535. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74912-5
  21. Neylon, J. M. and L. Kung. Jr. 2003. Effects of cutting height and maturity on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2163-2169. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73806-5
  22. NRC. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th rev. Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  23. Playne, M. J. and P. McDonald. 1966. The buffering constituents of herbage and of ensilage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 17:264-268. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740170609
  24. Stallings, C. C., R. Townes, B. W. Jesse, and J. W. Thomas. 1981. Changes in alfalfa haylage during wilting and ensiling with and without additives. J. Anim. Sci. 53:765-773.
  25. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  26. Takahashi, T., K. Horiguchi, and M. Goto. 2005. Effect of crushing unhulled rice and the addition of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation quality of whole crop rice silage, and its digestibility and rumen fermentation status in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 76:353-358. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2005.00275.x
  27. Thomas, T. A. 1977. An automated procedure for the determination of soluble carbohydrates in herbage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 28:639-642. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740280711
  28. Titterton, M. and B. V. Maasdorp. 1997. Nutritional improvement of maize silage for dairying: mixed crop silages from sole and intercropped legumes and a long season variety of maize. 2. Ensilage. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 69:263-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)81640-9
  29. Woolford, M. K. 1984. Managing aerobic deterioration in silage. In: Silage Management. Natl. Feed Ingredient Assoc., Silage Technol. Div. West Des Moines, IA. pp. 42-75.
  30. Weinberg, Z. G. 2008. Preservation of forage crops by solid-state lactic acid fermentation-ensiling. In: Current Developments in Solid-state Fermentation. Springer New York. pp. 443-467.
  31. Weinberg, Z. G. and R. E. Muck. 1996. New trends and opportunities in the development and use of inoculants for silage. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 19:53-68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.1996.tb00253.x
  32. Woolford, M. K. 1975. Microbiological screening of straight chain fatty acids (C1-C12) as potential silage additives. J. Sci. Food Agric. 26:219-228. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740260213
  33. Wuisman, Y., H. Hiraoka, M. S. Yahaya, M. Takeda, W. Kim, T. Takahashi, S. Karita, K. Horiguchi, T. Takahashi, and M. Goto. 2006. Effects of phenylalanine fermentation byproduct and sugarcane molasses on fermentation quality and rumen degradation of whole crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) silage in situ. Grassl. Sci. 52:73-79. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-697X.2006.00050.x

Cited by

  1. on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration silages vol.71, pp.2, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1111/gfs.12180
  2. digestibility and aerobic stability of total mixed ration silages in the Tibetan plateau of China vol.87, pp.5, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12477
  3. Effect of ensiling a total mixed ration for dry cows on chemical composition, fermentative quality, aerobic stability and palatability vol.88, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.2508/chikusan.88.1
  4. silage pp.01425242, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/gfs.12301
  5. Characterization of nitrogen transformation dynamics in alfalfa and red clover and their mixture silages pp.17446961, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1111/grs.12230