Characteristics of Precipitation over the East Coast of Korea Based on the Special Observation during the Winter Season of 2012

2012년 특별관측 자료를 이용한 동해안 겨울철 강수 특성 분석

  • Received : 2013.12.23
  • Accepted : 2014.02.05
  • Published : 2014.02.28


The special observation using Radiosonde was performed to investigate precipitation events over the east coast of Korea during the winter season from 5 January to 29 February 2012. This analysis focused on the various indices to describe the characteristics of the atmospheric instability. Equivalent Potential Temperature (EPT) from surface (1000 hPa) to middle level (near 750 hPa) was increased when the precipitation occurred and these levels (1000~750 hPa) had moisture enough to cause the instability of atmosphere. The temporal evolution of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) appeared to be enhanced when the precipitation fell. Similar behavior was also observed for the temporal evolution of Storm Relative Helicity (SRH), indicating that it had a higher value during the precipitation events. To understand a detailed structure of atmospheric condition for the formation of precipitation, the surface remote sensing data and Automatic Weather System (AWS) data were analyzed. We calculated the Total Precipitable Water FLUX (TPWFLUX) using TPW and wind vector. TPWFLUX and precipitation amount showed a statistically significant relationship in the north easterly winds. The result suggested that understanding of the dynamical processes such as wind direction be important to comprehend precipitation phenomenon in the east coast of Korea.


rainfall events;snowfall events;special observation;unstability;tpwflux


  1. Chang, H., Franczyk, J., and Kim, C., 2009, What is responsible for increasing flood risk? The case of Gangwon province, Korea. Natural Hazards, 48, 339-354.
  2. Cho, K.-H., Cho, Y.-J., and Kwon, T.-Y., 2004, Characteristics of air mass related with precipitation events in Yeongdong region. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmosphere Sciences, 40, 381-393. (in Korean)
  3. Chung, K.-B., Kim, J.-Y., and Kwon, T.-Y., 2004, Characteristics of lower-Tropospheric wind related with winter precipitation in the Yeongdong region. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmosphere Sciences, 40, 369-380. (in Korean)
  4. Davies-Jones, R.P., Burgess, D., and Foster, M., 1990, Test of helicity as a tornado forecast parameter. 16th Conference on Severe Local Storms, American Meteorological Society, 56-60.
  5. Jung, S.-H., Im, E.-S., and Han, S.-O., 2012, The effect of topography and sea surface temperature on heavy snowfall in the Yeongdong region and a case study with high resolution WRF simulation. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 48, 259-273.
  6. Lee, J.G. and In, S.-R., 2009, A numerical sensitivity experiment of the downslope windstorm over the Yeongdong region in relation to the inversion layer of temperature. Atmosphere, 19, 331-344. (in Korean)
  7. Kim, D.-W., Kim, Y.-H., Kim, K.-H., Shin, S.-S., Kim, D.-K., Hwang, Y.-J., Park, J.-I., Choi, D.-Y., and Lee, Y.-H., 2012a, Atmospheric vertical structure of heavy rainfall system during 2010 summer intensive observation period over Seoul metropolitan area. Journal of Korean Earth Science Society, 33, 148-161. (in Korean)
  8. Kim, D.-W., Kim, Y.-H., Kim, K.-H., Shin, S.-S., Kim, D.-K., Hwang, Y.-J., Park, J.-I., Choi, D.-Y., and Lee, Y.-H., 2012b, Effect of urbanization on rainfall events during the 2010 summer intensive observation period over Seoul metropolitan area. Journal of Korean Earth Science Society, 33, 219-232. (in Korean)
  9. Kwon, T.-Y., Kim, J.-S., and Kim, B.-G., 2013, Comparison of the properties of Yeongdong and Yeongseo heavy rain. Atmosphere, 23, 245-264. (in Korean)
  10. Lee, J.G. and Kim, Y.J., 2008, A numerical case study examining the orographic effect of the Taebaek mountains on snowfall distribution over the Yeongdong area. Atmosphere, 18. (in Korean)
  11. Lee, J.G. and Lee, J.S., 2003, A numerical study of Yeongdong heavy snowfall events associated with easterly. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmosphere Sciences, 39, 475-490. (in Korean)
  12. Lee, J.-S., Kwon, T.-Y., and Kim, D.-R., 2006, Statistical verification of precipitation forecasts from MM5 for heavy snowfall events in Yeongdong region. Atmosphere, 16, 125-139. (in Korean)
  13. Paul J. Neiman, Hughes, M., Moore, B.J., Ralph, F.M., and Sukovich E.M., 2013, Sierra barrier jets, atmospheric rivers, and precipitation characteristics in northern California: A composite perspective based on a network of wind profilers. Monthly Weather Review, 141, 4211-4233.
  14. Lim, Y.-K., Han, S.-O., Jung, S.-P., and Seong, J.-H., 2013, The Characteristic analysis of precipitable water vapor according to GPS observation baseline determination. Journal of Korean Earth Science Society, 34, 1-7. (in Korean)
  15. Moncrieff, M. and Miller, M.J., 1976, The dynamics and simulation of tropical cumulonimbus and squall lines. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 102, 373-394.
  16. NEMA, 2012, Annual disaster report for 2011. National Emergency Management Agency, 973 p. (in Korean)
  17. WMO, 2006, WMO guide to meteorological instruments and methods of observation, WMO publication no. 8. World Meteorological Organization, 47 p.
  18. WMO, 2011, Instruments and observing methods report no. 107. World Meteorological Organization, 101 p.
  19. Yoo, C.S., Shin, C.-K., and Yoon, Y.-N., 2004, Estimation and analysis of pecipitation water. Journal of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers, 24, 413-420. (in Korean)

Cited by

  1. Quality Evaluation of Wind Vectors from UHF Wind Profiler using Radiosonde Measurements vol.24, pp.1, 2015,
  2. A Case Study on the Impact of Ground-based Glaciogenic Seeding on Winter Orographic Clouds at Daegwallyeong vol.36, pp.4, 2015,
  3. Interannual variability of winter precipitation linked to upper ocean heat content off the east coast of Korea pp.08998418, 2017,
  4. Case Study of Ground-Based Glaciogenic Seeding of Clouds over the Pyeongchang Region vol.2018, pp.1687-9317, 2018,


Supported by : 국립기상연구소