Characterization of Chemical Properties of Precipitation at Busan, Korea, 2009

2009년 부산지역 강수의 화학적 특성

  • Jung, Woon-Seon (Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Park, Sung-Hwa (Interdisciplinary Program of Earth Environmental Engineering, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Kang, Deok-Du (Interdisciplinary Program of Earth Environmental Engineering, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Lee, Dong-In (Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Kim, Dongchul (Universities Space Research Association (USRA))
  • 정운선 (부경대학교 환경대기과학과) ;
  • 박성화 (부경대학교 지구환경공학연협동과정) ;
  • 강덕두 (부경대학교 지구환경공학연협동과정) ;
  • 이동인 (부경대학교 환경대기과학과) ;
  • 김동철
  • Received : 2013.05.24
  • Accepted : 2013.09.09
  • Published : 2014.01.31


The seasonal variation of pH and ion components in precipitation were investigated from January to December 2009 at Busan, Korea. The precipitation was acidic with a volume-weighted mean pH concentration of 5.32, which ranged from 3.79 to 8.66. The volume-weighted mean conductivity showed 86.77 ${\mu}S/cm$ and indicated higher concentration about 96.69 ${\mu}S/cm$ in summer. The volume-weighted mean equivalent concentration of components followed the order: $K^+$ > $Ca^{2+}$ > $nss-Ca^{2+}$ > $NH_4^+$ > $Mg^{2+}$ > $Na^+$ > $Li^+$ in cations and $Cl^-$ > $SO_4^{2-}$ > $nss-SO_4^{2-}$ > $NO_3^-$ > $NO^{2-}$ > $F^-$ > $Br^-$ in anions. Particularly, concentration of $K^+$ and $Cl^-$ showed 56 and 78 % in cations and anions. The higher concentration in $K^+$, $Na^+$, $Mg^{2+}$ and $Cl^-$ were shown in Busan city as compared to the other cities. The neutralization factors have been found to have higher value for potassium ion in winter compared with different seasons, indicating significant neutralization of acidic components over the region by potassium. Therefore, the precipitation characteristics at Busan had both continental and coastal as consequence of pH, conductivity and ionic analyses.


Precipitation;pH;Electric conductivity;Ionic components


Supported by : 국제과학기술협력재단


  1. Avila, A., Alarcon, M., 1999, Relations between precipitation chemistry and meteorological situations at a rural site in NE Spain, Atmos. Environ., 33, 1663-1667.
  2. Bang, S. Y., Choi, J. C., Park, S. S., Cho, K. S. Oh, S. N., 2003, A study on the properties of ionic components in precipitation at background area of the Korean peninsula, J. Kor. Meteor. Soc., 39(1), 29-41.
  3. Choi, J. C., Lee, M. Y., Lee, S. K., 1995, A study on water-soluble ion components in precipitation in the upstream and downstream regions of the prevailing wind at Mt. Sobaek, J. Kor. Meteor. Soc., 31(4), 353-361.
  4. Chung, J. D., Lee, C. Ho., 2003, Water soluble ionic components in precipitation at ChungNam westcoast area, J. Environ. Sci., 12(12), 1285-1292.
  5. Hu, G. P., Balasubramanian, R., Wu, C. D., 2003, Chemical characterization of rainwater at Singapore, Chemosphere, 51, 747-755.
  6. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007, Climate change 2007: The scientific basis, Cambridge University Press.
  7. Ito, M., Mitchell, M., Driscoll, C. T., 2002, Spatial patterns of precipitation quantity and chemistry and air temperature in the Adirondack region of New York, Atmos. Environ., 36, 1051-1062.
  8. Kang, G. U., Kim, N. S., Jeon, S. B., 2006, Deposition characteristics of water-soluble inorganic ions in the Iksan ambient air during fall, 2004, Kor. J. Environ. Health., 32(4), 359-372.
  9. Kim, S. B., Choi, B. C., Oh, S. Y., Kim, S. Kang, G. U., 2006, Acidity and chemical composition of precipitation at background area of the Korean peninsula (Anmyeon, Uljin, Gosan), J. Kor. Soc. for Atmos. Environ., 22(1), 15-24.
  10. Kim, W. H., Kang, C. H., Hong, S. B., Ko, H. J., Lee, W., 2007, Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 fine particles collected at 1100 site of Mt. Halla during spring seasons between 1998 and 2004, J. Anal. Sci. Technol., 20(5), 383-392.
  11. Lee, B. K., Hong, S. H., Lee, D.S., 2000, Chemical composition of precipitation and wet deposition of major ions on the Korean peninsula, Atmos. Environ., 34, 563-575.
  12. Migliavacca, D., Teixeira, E. C., Wiegand, F., Machado, A.C.M., Sanchez, J., 2005, Atmospheric precipitation and chemical composition of an urban site, Guaiba hydrographic basin, Brazil, Atmos. Environ., 39, 1829-1844.
  13. Mouli, P. C., Mohan, S. V., Reddy, S. J., 2005, Rainwater chemistry at a regional representative urban site, influence of terrestrial sources on ionic composition, Atmos. Environ., 39, 999-1008.
  14. Park, J. K., Hwang, Y. S., 1997, The characteristics of chemical components and acidity in the precipitation at Kimhae area, J. Kor. Environ. Sci. Soc., 6(5), 461-472.
  15. Park, J. Y., Lim, H. J., 2006, Characteristics of water soluble ions in fine particles during the winter and spring in Daegu, J. Kor. Soc. for Atmos. Environ., 22(5), 627-641.
  16. Seo, K. J., 2010, Variation of atmospheric pollutants concentration by raindrop size distribution in southwestern area, Korea, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea.
  17. Shim, S. G., Kang, C. H., Kim, Y.-P., 1994, Analysis of rainwater samples in Cheju, J. Korea Air Pollut. Res. Assoc., 10(2), 98-104.
  18. Topcu, S., Incecik, S., Atimtay, A., 2002, Chemical composition of rainwater at EMEP station in Ankara, Turkey, Atmos. Res., 65, 77-92.
  19. Tu, J., Wang, H., Zhang, Z., Jin, X., Li, W., 2005, Trends in chemical composition of precipitation in Nanjing, China, during 1992-2003, Atmos. Res., 73, 283-298.
  20. Yang, F., He, K., Ma, Y., Yu, X., Tanaka, S., Okuda, T., Iwase, T., 2004, Chemical characters of atmospheric precipitation in Beijing in years of 2001-2003, China Environ. Sci., 24(5), 538-541.
  21. Cao, Y. Z., Wang, S., Zhang, G., Luo, J., Lu, S., 2009, Chemical characteristics of wet precipitation at an urban site of Guangzhou, South China, Atmos. Res., 94, 462-469.
  22. Zhang, M., Wang, S., Wu, F., Yuan, X., Zhang, Y., 2007, Chemical composition of wet precipitation and anthropogenic influence at a developing urban site in Southeastern China, Atmos. Res., 84, 311-322.
  23. Zhao, W., 2004, An analysis on the changing trend of acid rain and its causes in Fujian Province, Fujian Geogr., 19 (40), 1-5.

Cited by

  1. Chemical Properties of Precipitation in Related to Wind Direction in Busan, Korea, 2009 vol.35, pp.2, 2014,