Effects of Brown Rice Extract Treated with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 on Osteoblast Differentiation and Osteoclast Formation

  • Kang, Miran (Microbiology and Fermentation Research Group, World Institute of Kimchi) ;
  • Song, Jung-Hee (Microbiology and Fermentation Research Group, World Institute of Kimchi) ;
  • Park, Sung-Hee (Industry Service Research Center, World Institute of Kimchi) ;
  • Lee, Jong-Hee (Microbiology and Fermentation Research Group, World Institute of Kimchi) ;
  • Park, Hae Woong (Microbiology and Fermentation Research Group, World Institute of Kimchi) ;
  • Kim, Tae-Woon (Microbiology and Fermentation Research Group, World Institute of Kimchi)
  • Received : 2014.08.21
  • Accepted : 2014.11.20
  • Published : 2014.12.31


Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) or phytate is considered an anti-nutrient due to the formation of precipitated complexes that strongly reduces the absorption of essential dietary minerals. In this study, brown rice with reduced phytate was made by inoculation with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 having high phytase activity. The effects of brown rice extract treated with L. sakei Wikim001 (BR-WK) on osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation were investigated. The proliferation of SaOS-2 cells was measured by the MTT assay. Treatment with BR-WK increased cell proliferation by 136% at a concentration of $100{\mu}g/mL$. The Alkaline phosphate activity in SaOS-2 cells was 129% higher when BR-WK was processed at a concentration of $100{\mu}g/mL$. The proliferation of bone marrow macrophages decreased by nearly 60% in response to treatment with BR-WK. In addition, BR-WK reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive ($TRAP^+$) multinucleated cells from bone marrow macrophages. These results indicate that BR-WK stimulates bone formation through its positive action on osteoblast differentiation and function and furthermore, decreases osteoclast differentiation.


Supported by : Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs


  1. Tuncel NB, Yilmaz N, Kocabiyik H, Uygur A. 2014. The effect of infrared stabilized rice bran substitution on B vitamins, minerals and phytic acid content of pan breads: Part II. J Cereal Sci 59: 162-166.
  2. Ohtsubo K, Suzuki K, Yasui Y, Kasumi T. 2005. Biofunctional components in the processed pre-germinated brown rice by a twin-screw extruder. J Food Compos Anal 18: 303-316.
  3. Panlasigui LN, Thompson LU. 2006. Blood glucose lowering effects of brown rice in normal and diabetic subjects. Int J Food Sci Nutr 57: 151-158.
  4. Greiner R, Konietzny U. 2006. Phytase for food application. Food Technol Biotechnol 44: 125-140.
  5. Mullaney EJ, Ullah AH. 2003. The term phytase comprises several different classes of enzymes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 312: 179-184.
  6. Gobbetti M, De Angelis M, Corsetti A, Di Cagno R. 2005. Biochemistry and physiology of sourdough lactic acid bacteria. Trends Food Sci Technol 16: 57-69.
  7. Liu BL, Rafiq A, Tzeng YM, Rob A. 1998. The induction and characterization of phytase and beyond. Enzyme Microb Technol 22: 415-422.
  8. Pandey A, Szakacs G, Soccol CR, Rodriguez-Leon JA, Soccol VT. 2001. Production, purification and properties of microbial phytases. Bioresour Technol 77: 203-214.
  9. Zamudio M, Gonzalez A, Medina JA. 2001. Lactobacillus plantarum phytase activity is due to non-specific acid phosphatase. Lett Appl Microbiol 32: 181-184.
  10. Lopez HW, Ouvry A, Bervas E, Guy C, Messager A, Demigne C, Remesy C. 2000. Strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sour doughs degrade phytic acid and improve calcium and magnesium solubility from whole wheat flour. J Agric Food Chem 48: 2281-2285.
  11. Solt DB. 1991. The pathogenesis, oral manifestations, and implications for dentistry of metabolic bone disease. Curr Opin Dent 1: 783-791.
  12. Nordin BE. 1997. Calcium and osteoporosis. Nutrition 13: 664-686.
  13. Kim MS, Lee YS. 2005. Effects of dietary calcium and soy isoflavones supplementation on bone metabolism in the ovariectomized rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34: 833-839.
  14. Morabito N, Crisafulli A, Vergara C, Gaudio A, Lasco A, Frisina N, D'Anna R, Corrado F, Pizzoleo MA, Cincotta M, Altavilla D, Ientile R, Squadrito F. 2002. Effects of genistein and hormone-replacement therapy on bone loss in early postmenopausal women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Bone Miner Res 17: 1904-1912.
  15. Mok SK, You HK, Shin HS. 1996. The effects of prostaglandin and dibutyryl cAMP on osteoblastic cell activity and osteoclast generation. J Periodontal Implant Sci 26: 448-468.
  16. Choi EM, Suh KS, Kim YS, Choue RW, Koo SJ. 2001. Soybean ethanol extract increases the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Phytochemistry 56: 733-739.
  17. Park SH, Yang SY, Lee JH, Kang MR. 2013. Selection of phytate-degrading lactic acid bacteria from kimchi and reaction properties in brown rice. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 42: 627-632.
  18. Nijweide PJ, Burger EH, Feyen JH. 1986. Cells of bone: proliferation, differentiation, and hormonal regulation. Physiol Rev 66: 855-886.
  19. Gerber HP, Vu TH, Ryan AM, Kowalski J, Werb Z, Ferrara N. 1999. VEGF couples hypertrophic cartilage remodeling, ossification and angiogenesis during endochondral bone formation. Nat Med 5: 623-628.
  20. Jun AY, Kim HJ, Park KK, Son KH, Lee DH, Woo MH, Kim YS, Lee SK, Chung WY. 2012. Extract of Magnoliae Flos inhibits ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by blocking osteoclastogenesis and reducing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Fitoterapia 83: 1523-1531.
  21. Boyle WJ, Simonet WS, Lacey DL. 2003. Osteoclast differentiation and activation. Nature 423: 337-342.
  22. Lacey DL, Timms E, Tan HL, Kelley MJ, Dunstan CR, Burgess T, Elliott R, Colombero A, Elliott G, Scully S, Hsu H, Sullivan J, Hawkins N, Davy E, Capparelli C, Eli A, Qian YX, Kaufman S, Sarosi I, Shalhoub V, Senaldi G, Guo J, Delaney J, Boyle WJ. 1998. Osteoprotegerin ligand is a cytokine that regulates osteoclast differentiation and activation. Cell 93: 165-176.

Cited by

  1. Lactobacillus sakei: A Starter for Sausage Fermentation, a Protective Culture for Meat Products vol.5, pp.3, 2017,