Changes in the Biomechanical Properties of Ankle Plantarflexors Following 8-week Resistance Training with or without Whole-Body Vibration in Older Women

8주간의 체중을 이용한 저항운동 시 전신진동 유·무에 따른 노인 여성하지의 발바닥쪽굽힘근의 생체역학적 특성 변화

  • Han, Bo-Ram (Department of Physical Education, Graduate School of Yonsei University) ;
  • Lee, Dae-Yeon (Department of Silver Industrial Engineering, College of Future Human Resource Development, Kangnam University) ;
  • Jeong, Si-Woo (Department of Physical Education, Graduate School of Yonsei University) ;
  • Lee, Hae-Dong (Department of Physical Education, Graduate School of Yonsei University)
  • 한보람 (연세대학교 대학원 체육학과) ;
  • 이대연 (강남대학교 미래인재개발대학 실버산업공학과) ;
  • 정시우 (연세대학교 대학원 체육학과) ;
  • 이해동 (연세대학교 대학원 체육학과)
  • Received : 2014.11.10
  • Accepted : 2014.12.02
  • Published : 2014.12.31


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration(WBV) on the biomechanical properties of the plantarflexor in the elderly women (>60 yrs., n=35). Thirty-five volunteers were randomly assigned to a resistance training with WBV group (RVT, n=14), a resistance training without WBV (RT, n=11), and a non-training control group (CON, n=10). The RVT and the RT groups participated in the training sessions three times a week for 8 weeks, followed by a 4-week detraining period. The CON group was instructed to refrain from any type of resistance training. To assess strength and activation of the plantarflexor muscles, maximum isometric ankle plantarflexion torque and muscle activation of the triceps surae muscles were measured using dynamometry, twitch interpolation technique and electromyography at four different ankle joint angles. Also, the lower extremity function was assessed by vertical jumping. The measurements were performed prior to, 2 and 8 weeks after the training and after a 4-week detraining period. Following the 8-week training sessions, an increase in the isometric plantarflexion strength was found to be greater for the RVT compared with the RT group (p<.05). Muscle inhibition was significantly decreased after training than before training only for the RVT (p<.05). Following the detraining period, a decrease in isometric plantarflexors strength and a increases in muscle inhibition were significantly less in the RVT compared with the RT group. In conclusion, the exercise with WBV is a feasible training modality for the elderly and seems to have a boosting effect when used with conventional resistance training.


Aging;Resistance Training;Whole-Body Vibration;Detraining;Muscle Property;Electromyography;Twitch Interpolation Technique;Muscle Inhibition;Ultrasound Imaging


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. Tracy, B. L., Ivey, F. M., Hurlbut, D., Martel, G. F., Lemmer, J. T., Siegel, E. L., Metter, E. J., Fozard, J. L., Fleg, J. L. & Hurley, B. F. (1999). Muscle quality. II. Effects Of strength training in 65-to 75-yr-old men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 86(1), 195-201.
  2. Verschueren, S. M., Roelants, M., Delecluse, C., Swinnen, S., Vanderschueren, D., & Boonen, S. (2004). Effect of 6-month whole body vibration training on hip density, muscle strength, and postural control in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 19(3), 352-359.
  3. Vincent, K. R., Braith, R. W., Feldman, R. A., Magyari, P. M., Cutler, R. B., Persin, S. A., Lennon, S. L., Gabr, A. H., & Lowenthal, D. T. (2002). Resistance exercise and physical performance in adults aged 60 to 83. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(6), 1100-1107.
  4. Young, A., Stokes, M., & Crowe, M. (1984). Size and strength of the quadriceps muscles of old and young women. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 14(4), 282-287.
  5. Yue, G. H., Ranganathan, V. K., Siemionow, V., Liu, J. Z., & Sahgal, V. (1999). Older adults exhibit a reduced ability to fully activate their biceps brachii muscle. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 54(5), M249-253.
  6. Ronnestad, B. R., & Ellefsen, S. (2011). The effects of adding different whole-body vibration frequencies to preconditioning exercise on subsequent sprint performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3306-3310.
  7. Rubenstein, L. Z., Josephson, K. R., Trueblood, P. R., Loy, S., Harker, J. O., Pietruszka, F. M., & Robbins, A. S. (2000). Effects of a group exercise program on strength, mobility, and falls among fall-prone elderly men. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55(6), M317-321.
  8. Runge, M., Rehfeld, G., & Resnicek, E. (2000). Balance training and exercise in geriatric patients. Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions, 1(1), 61-65.
  9. Russo, C. R., Lauretani, F., Bandinelli, S., Bartali, B., Cavazzini, C., Guralnik, J. M., & Ferrucci, L. (2003). High-frequency vibration training increases muscle power in postmenopausal women. Archives pf Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(12), 1854-1857.
  10. Scanlon, T. C., Fragala, M. S., Stout, J. R., Emerson, N. S., Beyer, K. S., Oliveira, L. P., & Hoffman, J. R. (2014). Muscle architecture and strength: adaptations to short-term resistance training in older adults. Muscle Nerve, 49(4), 584-592.
  11. Sherrington, C., Whitney, J. C., Lord, S. R., Herbert, R. D., Cumming, R. G., & Close, J. C. (2008). Effective exercise for the prevention of falls: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 56(12), 2234-2243.
  12. Skelton, D. A., & Beyer, N. (2003). Exercise and injury prevention in older people. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 13(1), 77-85.
  13. Skelton, D., Dinan, S., Campbell, M., & Rutherford, O. (2005). Tailored group exercise (Falls Management Exercise-FaME) reduces falls in community-dwelling older frequent fallers (an RCT). Age and Ageing, 34(6), 636-639.
  14. Suetta, C., Andersen, J. L., Dalgas, U., Berget, J., Koskinen, S., Aagaard, P., Magnusson, S. P. & Kjaer, M. (2008). Resistance training induces qualitative changes in muscle morphology, muscle architecture, and muscle function in elderly postoperative patients. Journal of Applied Physiology, 105(1), 180-186.
  15. Tomlinson, B. E., & Irving, D. (1977). The numbers of limb motor neurons in the human lumbosacral cord throughout life. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 34(2), 213-219.
  16. Torvinen, S., Kannus, P., Sievanen, H., Jarvinen, T. A., Pasanen, M., Kontulainen, S., Jarvinen, T. L., Javinen, M., Oja, P., & Vuori, I. (2002). Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(9), 1523-1528.
  17. Torvinen, S., Kannus, P., Sievanen, H., Jarvinen, T. A., Pasanen, M., Kontulainen, S., Nenonen, A., Jarvinen, T. L., Paakkala, T., Jarvinen, M., & Vuori, I. (2003). Effect of 8-month vertical whole body vibration on bone, muscle performance, and body balance: a randomized controlled study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 18(5), 876-884.
  18. Nordlund, M. M., & Thorstensson, A. (2007). Strength training effects of whole-body vibration?. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 17(1), 12-17.
  19. Park, D. H., Hwang, J. H., & Kim, K. H. (2008). Changes of metabolic and physiological to vibration frequency during whole-body vibration exercise. Journal of Korean Physical Education Association for Girls and Women, 22(1), 39-52.
  20. Patten, C., & Kamen, G. (2000). Adaptations in motor unit discharge activity with force control training in young and older human adults. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 83(2-3), 128-143.
  21. Porter, M. M., Myint, A., Kramer, J. F., & Vandervoort, A. A. (1995). Concentric and eccentric knee extension strength in older and younger men and women. Canadiasn Journal of Applied Physiology, 20(4), 429-439.
  22. Raimundo, A. M., Gusi, N., & Tomas-Carus, P. (2009). Fitness efficacy of vibratory exercise compared to walking in post menopausal women. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(5), 741-748.
  23. Rees, S., Murphy, A., & Watsford, M. (2007). Effects of vibration exercise on muscle performance and mobility in an older population. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 15(4), 367-381.
  24. Rees, S. S., Murphy, A. J., & Watsford, M. L. (2008). Effects of whole-body vibration exercise on lower-extremity muscle strength and power in an older population: a randomized clinical trial. Physical Therapy, 88(4), 462-470.
  25. Reeves, N. D., Maganaris, C. N., Longo, S., & Narici, M. V. (2009). Differential adaptations to eccentric versus conventional resistance training in older humans. Experimental Physiology, 94(7), 825-833.
  26. Reeves, N. D., Narici, M. V., & Maganaris, C. N. (2004). In vivo human muscle structure and function: adaptations to resistance training in old age. Experimental Physiology, 89(6), 675-689.
  27. Rehn, B., Lidstrom, J., Skoglund, J., & Lindstrom, B. (2007). Effects on leg muscular performance from whole-body vibration exercise: a systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 17(1), 2-11.
  28. Rittweger, J., Beller, G., & Felsenberg, D. (2000). Acute physiological effects of exhaustive whole-body vibration exercise in man. Clinical Physiology, 20(2), 134-142.
  29. Rittweger, J., Schiessl, H., & Felsenberg, D. (2001). Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 86(2), 169-173.
  30. Roelants, M., Delecluse, C., & Verschueren, S. M. (2004). Wholebody-vibration training increases knee-extension strength and speed of movement in older women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(6), 901-908.
  31. Roelants, M., Verschueren, S. M., Delecluse, C., Levin, O., & Stijnen, V. (2006). Whole-body-vibration-induced increase in leg muscle activity during different squat exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(1), 124-129.
  32. Lindle, R. S., Metter, E. J., Lynch, N. A., Fleg, J. L., Fozard, J. L., Tobin, J., Roy, T. A., & Hurley, B. F. (1997). Age and gender comparisons of muscle strength in 654 women and men aged 20-93 yr. Journal of Applied Physiology, 83(5), 1581-1587.
  33. Machado, A., Garcia-Lopez, D., Gonzalez-Gallego, J., & Garatachea, N. (2010). Whole-body vibration training increases muscle strength and mass in older women: a randomizedcontrolled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20(2), 200-207.
  34. Marin, P. J., Herrero, A. J., Garcia-Lopez, D., Rhea, M. R., Lopez-Chicharro, J., Gonzalez-Gallego, J., & Garatachea, N. (2012). Acute effects of whole-body vibration on neuromuscular responses in older individuals: implications for prescription of vibratory stimulation. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(1), 232-239.
  35. Marin, P. J., Martin-Lopez, A., Vicente-Campos, D., Angulo-Carrere, M., Garcia-Pastor, T., Garatachea, N., & Chicharro, J. L. (2011). Effects of vibration training and detraining on balance and muscle strength in older adults. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 10(3), 559-564.
  36. Marin, P. J., Santos-Lozano, A., Santin-Medeiros, F., Delecluse, C., & Garatachea, N. (2011). A comparison of training intensity between whole-body vibration and conventional squat exercise. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 21(4), 616-621.
  37. Marin, P. J., Torres-Luque, G., Hernandez-Garcia, R., Garcia-Lopez, D., & Garatachea, N. (2011). Effects of different vibration exercises on bench press. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(10), 743-748.
  38. Martinez, F., Rubio, J. A., Ramos, D. J., Esteban, P., Mendizabal, S., & Jimenez, F. (2013). Effects of 6-week whole body vibration training on the reflex response of the ankle muscles: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 8(1), 15-24.
  39. Merton, P. A. (1954). Voluntary strength and fatigue. The Journal of Physiology, 123(3), 553-564.
  40. Morley, J. E. (2012). Sarcopenia in the elderly. Family Practice, 29, i44-i48.
  41. Morley, P., Whitfield, J. F., Willick, G. E., Ross, V., MacLean, S., Barbier, J. R., Isaacs, R. J., & Andreassen, T. T. (2001). The effect of monocyclic and bicyclic analogs of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH)-(1-31)NH2 on bone formation and mechanical strength in ovariectomized rats. Calcified Tissue International, 68(2), 95-101.
  42. Moritani, T., & deVries, H. A. (1979). Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course of muscle strength gain. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 58(3), 115-130.
  43. Narici, M. V., & Maganaris, C. N. (2006). Adaptability of elderly human muscles and tendons to increased loading. Journal of Anatomy, 208(4), 433-443.
  44. Narici, M. V., Maganaris, C. N., Reeves, N. D., & Capodaglio, P. (2003). Effect of aging on human muscle architecture. Journal of Applied Physiology, 95(6), 2229-2234.
  45. Hunter, S. K., Thompson, M. W., & Adams, R. D. (2000). Relationships among age-associated strength changes and physical activity level, limb dominance, and muscle group in women. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55(6), B264-273.
  46. Ivey, F. M., Tracy, B. L., Lemmer, J. T., NessAiver, M., Metter, E. J., Fozard, J. L., & Hurley, B. F. (2000). Effects of strength training and detraining on muscle quality: age and gender comparisons. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55(3), B152-157.
  47. Janssen, I., Heymsfield, S. B., & Ross, R. (2002). Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(5), 889-896.
  48. Kallman, D. A., Plato, C. C., & Tobin, J. D. (1990). The role of muscle loss in the age-related decline of grip strength: cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives. Journal of Gerontology, 45(3), M82-88.
  49. Kamen, G., & De Luca, C. J. (1989). Unusual motor unit firing behavior in older adults. Brain Research, 482(1), 136-140.
  50. Kamen, G., Sison, S. V., Du, C. C., & Patten, C. (1995). Motor unit discharge behavior in older adults during maximal-effort contractions. Journal of Applied Physiology, 79(6), 1908-1913.
  51. Kannus, P., Parkkari, J., & Poutala, J. (1999). Comparison of force attenuation properties of four different hip protectors under simulated falling conditions in the elderly: an in vitro biomechanical study. Bone, 25(2), 229-235.
  52. Kent-Braun, J. A., Ng, A. V., Doyle, J. W., & Towse, T. F. (2002). Human skeletal muscle responses vary with age and gender during fatigue due to incremental isometric exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93(5), 1813-1823.
  53. Kim, K. E., Jang, S. N., Lim, S., Park, Y. J., Paik, N. J., Kim, K. W., Jang, H. C., & Lim, J. Y. (2012). Relationship between muscle mass and physical performance: is it the same in older adults with weak muscle strength?. Age and Ageing, 41(6), 799-803.
  54. Klass, M., Baudry, S., & Duchateau, J. (2007). Voluntary activation during maximal contraction with advancing age: a brief review. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 100(5), 543-551.
  55. Korea Society for Bone and Mineral Research. (2008). Physician's guideline for osteoporosis. Korea Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 28-30.
  56. Lanza, I. R., Russ, D. W., & Kent-Braun, J. A. (2004). Age-related enhancement of fatigue resistance is evident in men during both isometric and dynamic tasks. Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(3), 967-975.
  57. Lexell, J., Taylor, C. C., & Sjostrom, M. (1988). What is the cause of the ageing atrophy? Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole vastus lateralis muscle from 15-to 83-year-old men. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 84, 275-294.
  58. Dupuis, H., & Jansen, G. (1981). Immediate effects of vibration transmitted to the hand. Studies in Environmental Science 13, 76-86.
  59. Earles, D., Vardaxis, V., & Koceja, D. (2001). Regulation of motor output between young and elderly subjects. Clinical Neurophysiology, 112(7), 1273-1279.
  60. Eklund, G., & Hagbarth, K. E. (1966). Normal variability of tonic vibration reflexes in man. Experimental Neurology, 16(1), 80-92.
  61. Frontera, W. R., Hughes, V. A., Lutz, K. J., & Evans, W. J. (1991). A cross-sectional study of muscle strength and mass in 45-to 78-yr-old men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 71(2), 644-650.
  62. Frontera, W. R., Reid, K. F., Phillips, E. M., Krivickas, L. S., Hughes, V. A., Roubenoff, R., & Fielding, R. A. (2008). Muscle fiber size and function in elderly humans: a longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Physiology, 105(2), 637-642.
  63. Gillespie, L. D., Robertson, M. C., Gillespie, W. J., Lamb, S. E., Gates, S., Cumming, R. G., & Rowe, B. H. (2009). Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, 1-225.
  64. Gross, M. M., Stevenson, P. J., Charette, S. L., Pyka, G., & Marcus, R. (1998). Effect of muscle strength and movement speed on the biomechanics of rising from a chair in healthy elderly and young women. Gait and Posture, 8(3), 175-185.
  65. Hakkinen, K., Kallinen, M., Linnamo, V., Pastinen, U. M., Newton, R. U., & Kraemer, W. J. (1996). Neuromuscular adaptations during bilateral versus unilateral strength training in middleaged and elderly men and women. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 158(1), 77-88.
  66. Hakkinen, K., & Komi, P. V. (1983). Changes in neuromuscular performance in voluntary and reflex contraction during strength training in man. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 4(4), 282-288.
  67. Hakkinen, K., Komi, P. V., & Alen, M. (1985). Effect of explosive type strength training on isometric force-and relaxationtime, electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of leg extensor muscles. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 125(4), 587-600.
  68. Haykowsky, M. J., Eves, N. D., Warburton, D. E. R., & Findlay, M. J. (2003). Resistance exercise, the valsalva maneuver, and cerebrovascular transmural pressure. Medicine and Science in Sports And Exercise, 35(1), 65-68.
  69. Hazell, T. J., Jakobi, J. M., & Kenno, K. A. (2007). The effects of whole-body vibration on upper-and lower-body EMG during static and dynamic contractions. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 32(6), 1156-1163.
  70. Hughes, V. A., Frontera, W. R., Wood, M., Evans, W. J., Dallal, G. E., Roubenoff, R., & Fiatarone Singh, M. A. (2001). Longitudinal muscle strength changes in older adults: influence of muscle mass, physical activity, and health. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56(5), B209-217.
  71. Cardinale, M., & Bosco, C. (2003). The use of vibration as an exercise intervention. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 31(1), 3-7.
  72. Ciolac, E. G. (2013). Exercise training as a preventive tool for agerelated disorders: a brief review. Clinics, 68(5), 710-717.
  73. Cochrane, D. J., Legg, S. J., & Hooker, M. J. (2004). The short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on vertical jump, sprint, and agility performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18(4), 828-832.
  74. Cochrane, D. J., Loram, I. D., Stannard, S. R., & Rittweger, J. (2009). Changes in joint angle, muscle-tendon complex length, muscle contractile tissue displacement, and modulation of EMG activity during acute whole-body vibration. Muscle Nerve, 40(3), 420-429.
  75. Cormie, P., Deane, R. S., Triplett, N. T., & McBride, J. M. (2006). Acute effects of whole-body vibration on muscle activity, strength, and power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(2), 257-261.
  76. Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., Baeyens, J. P., Bauer, J. M., Boirie, Y., Cederholm, T., Landi, F., Martin, F. C., Michel, J. P., Rolland, Y., Schneider, S. M., Topinkova, E., Vandewoude, M., & Zamboni, M. (2010). Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: Report of the european working group on sarcopenia in older people. Age and Ageing, 39(4), 412-423.
  77. de Ruiter, C. J., van der Linden, R. M., van der Zijden, M. J., Hollander, A. P., & de Haan, A. (2003). Short-term effects of whole-body vibration on maximal voluntary isometric knee extensor force and rate of force rise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 88(4-5), 472-475.
  78. De Serres, S. J., & Enoka, R. M. (1998). Older adults can maximally activate the biceps brachii muscle by voluntary command. Journal of Applied Physiology, 84(1), 284-291.
  79. Delecluse, C., Roelants, M., Diels, R., Koninckx, E., & Verschueren, S. (2005). Effects of whole body vibration training on muscle strength and sprint performance in sprint-trained athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(8), 662-668.
  80. Delecluse, C., Roelants, M., & Verschueren, S. (2003). Strength increase after whole-body vibration compared with resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(6), 1033-1041.
  81. Delmonico, M. J., Harris, T. B., Visser, M., Park, S. W., Conroy, M. B., Velasquez-Mieyer, P., Boudreau, R., Manini, T. M., Nevitt, M., Newman, A. B., & Goodpaster, B. H. (2009). Longitudinal study of muscle strength, quality, and adipose tissue infiltration. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(6), 1579-1585.
  82. Di Giminiani, R., Tihanyi, J., Safar, S., & Scrimaglio, R. (2009). The effects of vibration on explosive and reactive strength when applying individualized vibration frequencies. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(2), 169-177.
  83. Ditor, D. S., & Hicks, A. L. (2000). The effect of age and gender on the relative fatigability of the human adductor pollicis muscle. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 78(10), 781-790.
  84. Bamman, M. M., Hill, V. J., Adams, G. R., Haddad, F., Wetzstein, C. J., Gower, B. A., Ahmed, A., & Hunter, G. R. (2003). Gender differences in resistance-training-induced myofiber hypertrophy among older adults. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 58(2), 108-116.
  85. Bautmans, I., Van Hees, E., Lemper, J. C., & Mets, T. (2005). The feasibility of whole body vibration in institutionalised elderly persons and its influence on muscle performance, balance and mobility: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Geriatrics, 5, 17.
  86. Bazett-Jones, D. M., Finch, H. W., & Dugan, E. L. (2008). Comparing the effects of various whole-body vibration accelerations on counter-movement jump performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 7(1), 144-150.
  87. Bogaerts, A. C. G., Delecluse, C., Claessens, A. L., Troosters, T., Boonen, S., & Verschueren, S. M. P. (2009). Effects of whole body vibration training on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in older individuals (a 1-year randomised controlled trial). Age and Ageing, 38(4), 448-454.
  88. Aagaard, P., Suetta, C., Caserotti, P., Magnusson, S. P., & Kjaer, M. (2010). Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(1), 49-64.
  89. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. (1998). Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(6), 992-1008.
  90. Bogaerts, A., Delecluse, C., Claessens, A. L., Coudyzer, W., Boonen, S., & Verschueren, S. M. P. (2007). Impact of whole-body vibration training versus fitness training on muscle strength and muscle mass in older men: a 1-year randomized controlled trial. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 62(6), 630-635.
  91. Bosco, C., Cardinale, M., Tsarpela, O., Colli, R., Tihanyi, J., von Duvillard, S. P., & Viru, A. (1998). The influence of whole body vibration on jumping performance. Biology of Sport, 15(3), 157-164.
  92. Bosco, C., Colli, R., Introini, E., Cardinale, M., Tsarpela, O., Madella, A., Tihanyi, J., & Viru, A. (1999). Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure. Clinical Physiology, 19(2), 183-187.
  93. Bosco, C., Iacovelli, M., Tsarpela, O., Cardinale, M., Bonifazi, M., Tihanyi, J., Viru, M., De Lorenzo, A., & Viru, A. (2000). Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men. European journal of applied physiology, 81(6), 449-454.
  94. Cameron, I. D., Murray, G. R., Gillespie, L. D., Robertson, M. C., Hill, K. D., Cumming, R. G., & Kerse, N. (2010). Interventions for preventing falls in older people in nursing care facilities and hospitals. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 1, 1-78.
  95. Campbell, A. J., Borrie, M. J., & Spears, G. F. (1989). Risk factors for falls in a community-based prospective study of people 70 years and older. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 44(4), M112-117.

Cited by

  1. The Effect in the Muscle Function Following 8-Week Dead-lift training with Whole-body Vibration in Rehabilitation for Sports Players vol.25, pp.3, 2015,
  2. The Effects of Lower Limb Muscle Activity on Postural Stability and Ground Type During Gait in Elderly Women vol.25, pp.1, 2015,