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Dietary Habits Contributing to Breast Cancer Risk Among Iranian Women

  • Mobarakeh, Zahra Sheikhi (Department of Cancer Quality of Life, Breast Cancer Research Center, ACECR) ;
  • Mirzaei, Khadijeh (Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Hatmi, Nadia (Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Ebrahimi, Mandana (Department of Cancer Quality of Life, Breast Cancer Research Center, ACECR) ;
  • Dabiran, Sohaila (Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Sotoudeh, Gity (Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2014.11.28

Abstract

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate demographic features, dietary habits, and some possible risk factors for being susceptible to breast cancer in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: A study of dietary habits and breast cancer was conducted among 53 Iranian women with histological confirmed disease and 40 matched controls. A dietary habits questionnaire was used to evaluate the pattern of selected food intakes. The risk of cancer was analyzed after adjustment for confounding factors. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, educational status, parity, lactation, marital status, menopause, history of estrogen therapy, and family history of breast disease or cancer were assessed among participants. Special attention was given to the relationship between consumption of high fat meat, milk, yogurt and cheese as well use of frying oils for frying foods, use of olive/liquid oils for cooking, removing fat from meat and poultry, removing chicken skin and not use of mayonnaise as salad dressing and the risk of breast cancer. Moreover, salad, vegetable and fruit consumption, and eating outdoors owere investigated. Results: Our results revealed significant lower education and higher BMI and waist circumference levels in patients with breast cancer. There was significantly increased breast cancer risk in overweight women in comparison with normal weight (OR=2.91, 95%CI 1.24 to 6.82). High intake of fat dairy products including milk and cheese was found to be a statistically significant factor for increasing breast cancer risk in models adjusting for age, BMI and education. Use of olive/liquid oils for cooking and avoidance of mayonnaise as salad dressing are related to lower risk of breast cancer. The frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was significantly lower in patients with breast cancer compared to healthy women. Conclusions: Dietary habits might be risk factors for breast cancer among Iranian women. Adoption of a prudent diet could be an appropriate strategy for preventing breast cancer.

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