Influence of Smoking Cessation on Periodontal Biomarkers in Gingival Crevicular Fluid for 1 Year: A Case Study

1년간 금연이 미치는 치은열구액 내 치주염 바이오마커 변화: 사례연구

  • Received : 2014.10.08
  • Accepted : 2014.11.17
  • Published : 2014.12.31


Although tobacco use has been known as one of the biggest risk factors on periodontal health, little is known about the effect of smoking cessation on it. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of concentration of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9 and interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$ in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of 11 quit-smokers for 1 year after smoking cessation. Eleven male subjects to maintain quit-smoking for 1 year participated the oral examination, GCF and saliva collection without periodontal treatments at baseline, after 2 weeks, 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 1 year. To confirm quit-smoking, nicotine and cotinine concentrations in saliva were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. MMP-8, MMP-9 and IL-$1{\beta}$ concentrations in GCF of upper anterior teeth area were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Change of MMP-8 in GCF during smoking cessation showed fluctuation with decrease (5 subjects) or increase (2 subjects) or maintenance tendency (4 subjects). Changes of MMP-9 were decrease (6 subjects), or increase (2 subjects), or maintenance (3 subjects). Change of IL-$1{\beta}$ also showed fluctuation with decrease (5 subjects) or increase (3 subjects) or maintenance tendency (3 subjects). The subjects with increase tendency had the relatively smaller amount concentration of MMP-8 and MMP-9 at the baseline. It was unclear smoking cessation without periodontal treatment could affect MMP-8, MMP-9, and IL-$1{\beta}$ in GCF. Fluctuation of periodontal biomarkers during smoking cessation might result from feedback interaction between environmental factors and periodontal cells.


Gingival crevicular fluid;Interleukin-1beta;Matrix metalloproteinase-8;Matrix metalloproteinase-9;Smoking cessation


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