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Effects of citrus pulp, fish by-product and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs

  • Noh, Hyun Suk (Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Ingale, Santosh Laxman (Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Lee, Su Hyup (Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Kwang Hyun (Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kwon, Ill Kyong (Department of Animal Products and Food Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Young Hwa (Department of Animal Resources Development, Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Chae, Byung Jo (Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University)
  • Received : 2014.05.13
  • Accepted : 2014.07.01
  • Published : 2014.07.31

Abstract

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with citrus pulp, fish by-product, and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on the growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs. A total of 180 weaned piglets (Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire ${\times}$ Duroc) were randomly allotted to three treatments on the basis of body weight (BW). There were six replicate pens in each treatment with 10 piglets per pen. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, and 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass. The isocaloric and isoproteineous experimental diets were fed in mash form in two phases (d 0 ~ 14, phase I and d 15 ~ 28, phase II). Dietary treatments had significant linear effects on gain to feed ratio (G:F) in all periods, whereas significant linear effects on ATTD of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and ash were only observed in phase I. Piglets fed diet supplemented with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p < 0.05) G:F (phase I, phase II, and overall) as well as ATTD of DM, GE, and ash (phase I) than pigs fed control diet. Dietary treatments also had significant linear effects on total anaerobic bacteria populations by d 14 and 28. In addition, piglets fed diet supplemented with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p < 0.05) fecal total anaerobic bacteria populations (d 14 and 28) than pigs fed control diet. Dietary treatments had no significant effects (linear or quadratic) on average daily gain (ADG), average dial feed intake (ADFI; phase I, phase II, and overall), or fecal populations of Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium spp., and coliforms (d 14 and 28). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass has the potential to improve the feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs.

Keywords

Citrus pulp;Bacillus subtilis;Performance;Fecal microflora;Weanling pigs

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

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