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Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protective Activities of Freeze-Dried Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis)

동결건조 진주담치 추출물의 항산화 및 DNA 손상 보호 활성

  • Lee, Seon Woo (Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyungnam University) ;
  • Choi, Mi-Joo (Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyungnam University) ;
  • Kim, Si-Kyung (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungnam University) ;
  • Lee, Seung-Cheol (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungnam University) ;
  • Park, Eunju (Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyungnam University)
  • Received : 2014.09.12
  • Accepted : 2014.11.23
  • Published : 2014.12.31

Abstract

Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are widely distributed among the world's oceans in various habitats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of freeze-drying on the antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of blue mussels collected in the Gyeongnam coast area of Korea. Raw (RM) and freeze-dried blue mussel flesh (FRM) were extracted with ethanol, methanol, and water. Antioxidant activities were evaluated on the basis of DPPH radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant capacity (CAC), and antigenotoxic activity (comet assay). Except for the water extract, RM and FRM showed DPPH radical scavenging activities, which increased upon freeze-drying in MeOH extract. The highest ORAC value was observed in water extract of RM and MeOH extract of FRM. CAC was protected against AAPH-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells by both RM and FRM extracts. Freeze-drying lowered ORAC value of water extract, whereas it increased CAC activity, suggesting that antioxidant activities varied according to the generated radicals. All extracts from RM and FRM showed antigenotoxic activities by reducing $H_2O_2$-induced DNA damage in human leukocytes. Freeze-drying had no effect on antigenotoxicity of blue mussels. Taken together, these results indicate that blue mussels possess antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties, and freeze-drying might be a useful processing method for blue mussels to retain their maximum physiological potential as a functional food.

동결건조에 의한 진주담치의 생리활성의 변화를 살펴보고자 DPPH 라디칼 소거능, ORAC, CAC 등의 항산화 활성과 comet assay를 이용한 DNA 손상 보호능을 측정하였다. 생 진주담치 및 동결건조 진주담치에서 물 추출물을 제외한 에탄올과 메탄올 추출물에서 DPPH 라디칼 소거능을 확인하였고, 메탄올 추출물의 경우 동결건조에 의해 DPPH 라디칼 소거능이 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 생 진주담치의 ORAC 수치는 물 추출물에서 가장 높게 나타난 반면, 동결건조 진주담치의 경우 메탄올 추출물에서 가장 높게 나타났다. 동결건조 후 ORAC 수치는 물 추출물에서만 유의적으로 감소된 반면 HepG2 세포의 라디칼 소거능(CAC)의 경우 물 추출물에서 유의적으로 증가하여 소거 대상 라디칼에 따라 항산화 활성의 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 생 또는 동결건조 진주담치는 모든 추출물에서 산화적 스트레스에 의한 DNA 손상을 억제하는 보호 효과가 있음이 밝혀졌고 동결건조에 의한 보호 효과는 유의적인 변화가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 결론적으로 진주담치는 물 추출물의 DPPH 라디칼 소거능을 제외하고는 모든 추출물에서 항산화 활성과 더불어 DNA 손상의 보호 효과가 관찰되었고 동결건조 가공처리에 의해서 그 활성이 크게 영향을 받지 않거나 추출물에 따라 오히려 활성이 증가함을 알 수 있었다. 이러한 결과를 바탕으로 우리나라에서 생산되는 진주담치의 식품 첨가물이나 기능성 식품 개발을 위한 생리활성 소재로의 가능성을 확인할 수 있었다.

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