- Volume 7 Issue 6
DOI QR Code
Performance of retaining walls with and without sound wall under seismic loads
- Mock, Erin (Alta Vista Solutions, Inc.) ;
- Cheng, Lijuan (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California)
- Received : 2014.05.09
- Accepted : 2014.05.21
- Published : 2014.12.25
The seismic characteristics of two semi-gravity reinforced concrete cantilever retaining walls are examined via an experimental program using an outdoor shake table (one with and the other without concrete masonry sound wall on top). Both walls are backfilled with compacted soil and supported on flexible foundation in a steel soil container. The primary damages during both tests are associated with significant lateral displacements of the wall caused by lateral earth pressure; however, no collapse occurs during the tests. The pressure distribution behind the walls has a nonlinear trend and conventional methods such as Mononobe-Okabe are insufficient for accurate pressure estimation.
Supported by : California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)
- AASHTO (2005), AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (3rd edn), AASHTO, Washington DC.
- Aggour, M. and Brown, C. (1974), "The prediction of earth pressure on retaining walls due to compaction", Geotech., 24(4), 489-502. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.19184.108.40.2069
- Al Atik, L. and Sitar, N. (2007), Development of Improved Procedures for Seismic Design of Buried and Partially Buried Structures, Report No. 2007/06, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), University of California, Berkeley.
- Anderson, D, Martin, G.R., Lam, I. and Wang, J.N. (2009), Seismic Analysis and Design of Retaining Walls, Buried Structures, Slopes, and Embankments, NCHRP Rep. 611, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC.
- ASTM (2005a), Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens, ASTM Standard C39/C39M, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
- ASTM (2005b), Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products, ASTM Standard A370, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
- ASTM (2005c), Standard Specification for Load Bearing Concrete Masonry Units, ASTM Standard C90, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
- ASTM (2005d), Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry, ASTM Standard C270, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
- ASTM (2005e), Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry, ASTM Standard C476, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
- ASTM (2005f), Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression Test for Cohesive Soils, ASTM Standard D4767, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
- Bentler, J. and Labuz, J. (2006), "Performance of a cantilever retaining wall", J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng., 132(8), 1062-1070. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2006)132:8(1062)
- Bolton, M. and Steedman, R.S. (1982), "Centrifugal testing of microconcrete retaining walls subjected to base shaking", Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering Conference, Southampton, England, 311-329.
- Bolton, M. and Steedman, R.S. (1985), "The behavior of fixed cantilever walls subjected to lateral shaking", Proceedings of Symposium on the Application of Centrifuge Modeling to Geotechnical Design, Balkema, Rotterdam, 302-314.
- Caltrans (1999), Standard Specifications. The California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA.
- Caltrans (2008), Bridge Standard Detail Sheets. The California Department of Transportation, CA. http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/techpubs/manual/bridgemanuals/bridge-standard-detail-sheets/, cited on April 17, 2012.
- CDOT (2009), Bridge Design Manual, Colorado Department of Transportation, available at http://www.coloradodot.info/library/bridge/bridge-manuals/bridge-design-manual, cited on April 17, 2012.
- Dewoolkar, M., Ko, H. and Pak, R. (2001), "Seismic behavior of cantilever retaining walls with liquefiable backfills", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 127(5), 424-435. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2001)127:5(424)
- Fang, Y. and Ishibashi, I. (1986), "Static earth pressures with various wall movements", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 112(3), 317-333. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1986)112:3(317)
- Fang, Y.S., Yang, Y.C. and Chen, T.J. (2003), "Retaining walls damaged in the Chi-Chi earthquake", Can. Geotech. J., 40(6), 1142-1153. https://doi.org/10.1139/t03-055
- Gere, J.M. and Timoshenko, S.P. (1997), Mechanics of Materials, PWS Publishing Company.
- Jung, C. and Bobet, A. (2008), "Seismic earth pressures behind retaining walls: effects of rigid body motions", Proceedings of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics IV, Sacramento, CA.
- Koseki, J., Tatsuoka, F., Munaf, Y., Tateyama, M. and Kojima, K. (1998), "A modified procedure to evaluate active earth pressure at high seismic loads," Soils and Foundations, Special Issue on Geotechnical Aspects of the January 17 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu Earthquake, 2, pp. 209-216.
- Kramer, S. (1996), Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle, NJ.
- Kutter, B.L., Casey, J.A. and Romstad, K.M. (1990), "Centrifuge modeling and field observations of dynamic behavior of reinforced soil and concrete cantilever retaining walls", Proceedings of Fourth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Palm Springs, CA, May 20-24, 663-672.
- Ling, H.I. (2003), "A critical review of full-scale shaking table tests conducted on reinforced soil retaining walls", In Reinforced Soil Engineering: Advances in Research and Practice, Marcel Dekker, New York, 491-10.
- Ling, H.I., Liu, H., Kaliakin, V.N. and Leshchinsky, D. (2004), "Analyzing dynamic behavior of geosynthetic-reinforced soil retaining walls", J. Eng. Mech., 130(8), 911-920. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2004)130:8(911)
- Ling, H.I., Mohri, Y., Leshchinsky, D., Burke, C., Matsushima, K. and Liu, H. (2005), "Large-scale shaking table tests on modular-block reinforced soil retaining walls", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 131(4), 465-476. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:4(465)
- Mock, E. and Cheng, L. (2011), "Full-scale shake table test of retaining walls with and without sound wall," Test Report, CA/UCD-SESM-10-03, University of California, Davis, CA.
- Mononobe, N. and Matsuo, H. (1929), "On the determination of earth pressures during earthquakes", World Engineering Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 177-185.
- Mortezaei, A. and Zahrai, S.M. (2009), "Seismic response of reinforced concrete building with viscoelastic damper under near field earthquake", Asian J. Civil Eng. (Building and Housing), 9(3), 347-359.
- NEESR (2012), The George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research. Official website available at http://www.nees.org,cited on March 28, 2012.
- Newmark, N. (1965), "Effects of earthquakes on dams and embankments", Geotechnique, 15(2), 139-160. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.19220.127.116.11
- Ortiz, L. (1982), "Dynamic centrifuge testing of cantilever retaining walls", Ph.D. Dissertation, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
- Ortiz, L., Scott, R. and Lee, J. (1983), "Dynamic centrifuge testing of a cantilever retaining wall", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 1(2), 251-268.
- Paik, K.H. and Salgado, R. (2003), "Estimation of active earth pressure against rigid retaining walls considering arching effects", Geotech., 53(7), 643-653. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2003.53.7.643
- PEER (2013), PEER Strong Motion Database, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, website available at http://peer.berkeley.edu/peer_ground_motion_database, cited on March 4, 2013.
- Restrepo, J.I., Conte, J.P., Luco, J.E., Seible, F. and Van Den Einde, L. (2005), "The NEES@UCSD Large High Performance Outdoor Shake Table Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics (GSP 133)", Proceedings of the Geofrontiers Conference, Austin, TX, January 24-26.
- Richards, R. and Elms, D.G. (1979), "Seismic behavior of gravity retaining wall", J. Geotech. Eng. Div., 105(GT4), 449-464.
- Seed, H.B. and Whitman, R.V. (1970), "Design of earth retaining structures for dynamic loads," State-ofthe-Art Papers presented at the Special Conference: Lateral Stresses in the Ground and Design of Earth-Retaining Structures, Ithaca, NY, June 22-24, pp. 103-147.
- Siddharthan, R.V., Ganeshwara, V., Kutter, B.L., El-Desouky, M. and Whitman, R.V. (2004), "Seismic deformation of bar mat mechanically stabilized earth walls. I: centrifuge tests", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 130(1), 14-25. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2004)130:1(14)
- Stadler, A.T. (1996) "Static and dynamic behavior of cantilever retaining walls", Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO.
- Tajiri, N., Sasaki, H., Nishimura, J., Ochiai, Y. and Dobashi, K. (1996), "Full-scale failure experiments of geotextile-reinforced soil walls with different facings", in Earth Reinforcement, Ed. H. Ochiai et al., Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 525-530.
- Tavatli, D. and Li, J. (2007), "Seismic analysis of semi-gravity retaining wall", Power Point Presentation, The California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA.
- US Army Corps of Engineers (2012), "Appendix G - Earthquake forces from backfill", Stability Analysis of Concrete Structures, Engineer Manuals, EM 1110-2-2100, available at http://18.104.22.168/publications/eng-manuals/EM_1110-2-2100_sec/Sections/a-g.pdf, cited on March 4, 2013.
- Wilson, P. (2009), "Large scale passive force-displacement and dynamic earth pressure experiments and simulations", Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA.
- Wilson, P. and Elgamal, A. (2009), "Full-scale shake table investigation of bridge abutment lateral earth pressure", Bull. New Zealand Soc. Earthq. Eng. (NZSEE), 42(1), 39-46.
- Yagi, Y. and Kikuchi, M. (2000), "Source rupture process of the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake of August 17, 1999, obtained by joint inversion of near-field data and teleseismic data", Geophy. Res. Lett., 27(13), 1969-972. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999GL011208
- Seismic analysis of semi-gravity RC cantilever retaining wall with TDA backfill vol.11, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0392-z