- Volume 27 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Efficacy of Flaxseed Flour as Bind Enhancing Agent on the Quality of Extended Restructured Mutton Chops
- Sharma, Heena (Division of Livestock Products Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
- Sharma, Brahma Deo (Division of Livestock Products Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
- Mendiratta, S.K. (Division of Livestock Products Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
- Talukder, Suman (Division of Livestock Products Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
- Ramasamy, Giriprasad (Division of Livestock Products Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute)
- Received : 2013.05.21
- Accepted : 2013.09.02
- Published : 2014.02.01
Consumers have become very conscious about their nutrition and well being due to changes in their socio-economic lifestyle and rapid urbanization. Therefore, development of technology for production of low cost and functional meat products is urgently required. One such approach is innovative restructuring technology in which binding of meat pieces still remains the main challenge and extension of product is generally associated with poor binding and texture. Thus, the present study was envisaged as an attempt to solve this problem by the incorporation of flaxseed flour (FF) as bind enhancing agent. The FF was used at three different levels viz., 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% to replace lean meat in pre-standardized restructured mutton chops formulation. The products were subjected to analysis for physico-chemical, sensory and textural properties. Cooking yield, moisture percentage and fat percentage increased with increase in the level of incorporation of FF, however, protein percent and pH decreased with increase in the level of incorporation. Shear force value of product incorporated with 1.5% FF was significantly higher (p<0.01) than control and product containing 0.5% FF level. Among the sensory attributes, product with 1% flaxseed flour showed significantly higher values (p<0.05) for general appearance, binding, texture and overall acceptability. Hardness showed significant increasing (p<0.01) values with increasing levels of incorporation of flaxseed flour, however all other parameters of texture profile analysis showed a decreasing trend. On the basis of sensory scores and physico-chemical properties, the optimum incorporation level of FF was adjudged as 1%. Products incorporated with optimum level of flaxseed flour (1%) were also assessed for water activity and microbiological quality during the storage period of 15 days. It was found that the extended restructured product could be safely stored under refrigeration (
Flaxseed Flour;Restructured Mutton Chops;Physico-chemical Properties;Sensory Attributes;Texture Profile Analysis;Microbiological Quality
- AOAC. 1995. Official method of analysis. 16th Edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
- APHA. 1984. Compendium of method of microbiological examination of food, 2nd Edn. Speck, M.L.American Public Health Association, Washington DC.
- Berglund, D. R. 2002. Flax: new uses and demands. Trends in new crops and new uses, ASHS press, Alexandria, VA. pp. 358-360.
- Bernal, V. M., C. H. Smajda, J. L. Smith, and D. W. Stanley. 1987. Interactions in protein/polysacchardise/calcium gels. J. Food Sci. 52:1121-1125. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb14023.x
- Berry, B. W. and D. W. Stiffler. 1981. Effect of electric stimulator boiling temperature formulation and rate of freezing on sensory cooking chemical and physical properties of ground beef patties. J. Food Sci. 46:1103-1106. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1981.tb03000.x
- Bilek, E. and S. Turhan. 2009. Enhancement of the nutritional status of beef patties by adding flaxseed flour. Meat Sci. 82:472-477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.03.002
- Boles, J. A. and P. J. Shand. 1999. Effects of raw binder system, meat cut and prior freezing on restructured beef. Meat Sci. 53:233-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00062-5
- Bourne, M. C. 1967. Texture profile analysis. J. Food Sci. 32:62-67.
- Chen, H. H., S. Xui, and Z. Wang. 2007. Interaction between flaxseed gum and meat protein. J. Food Eng. 80:1051-1059. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.08.017
- Chen, H. H., S. Xu, and Z. Wang. 2006. Gelation properties of flaxseed gum. J. Food Eng. 77:295-303 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.06.033
- Chen, H. H., S. Y. Xu, and Z. Wang. 2004. Separation and purification of acidic polysaccharides and neutral polysaccharides in flaxseed gum. J Food Ferment Ind. 1:96-100.
- Cremer, M. L. and J. R. Chipley. 1977. Satellite food service system: Time and temperature and microbiological and sensory quality of precooked frozen hamburger patties. J. Food Prot. 40:603-607.
- Daun, J. K., V. J. Barthet, T. L. Chornick, and S. Duguid. 2003. Structure, composition, and variety development of flaxseed. In: Flaxseed in Human Nutrition (Ed. L. U. Thompson, and S. C. Cunnane). AOCS Press, Champaign, USA, pp. 1-40.
- Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F test. Biometrics 11:1-42. https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478
- Fiscus, A., J. Harris, J. A. Albrecht, and S. E. Scheideler. 1999. Incorporation of flaxseed into a master mix and evaluation of banana bread and peanut butter cookies. J. Am. Diet Assoc. 99(9):A29.
- Greene, B. A. and T. H. Cumuze. 1982. Relationship between TBA numbers and inexperienced panelists. Assessments of oxidized flavour in cooked beef. J. Food Sci. 47:52-54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1982.tb11025.x
- Holmes, A. W., W. M. Marrs, and M. M. Boyar. 1986. Hydrocolloids and processed food. In: Gums and stabilizers for the food industry (Ed. G. O. Phillips, D. J. Wedlock, and P. A. Williams). 3:245-252. New York: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.
- Jay, J. M. 1996. In: Modern food microbiology (4th ed.). New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors.
- Lim, J. 2011. Hedonic scaling: A review of methods and theory. Food Qual. Prefer. 22:733-747.
- Lipillina, E. and V. Ganj. 2009. Incorporation of ground flaxseed in bakery products and its effect on sensory and nutritional characteristics-a pilot study. J. Food Sci. 20:50-59.
- Modi, V. K., N. S. Mahendrakar, D. Narasima Rao, and N. M. Sachindra. 2004. Quality of buffalo meat burger containing legume flours as binders. Meat Sci. 66:143-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(03)00078-0
- Sachdev, A. K. and R. Gopal. 2000. Storage quality changes in cooked chicken rolls. Ind. J. Poult. Sci. 35:364-366.
- Singer, F. A. W., F. S. Taha, S. S. Mohamed, A. Gibriel, and M. E-Nawawy. 2011. Preparation of protein/mucilage products from flaxseed. Am. J. Food. Tech. 6:260-278. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2011.260.278
- Singh, R., M. K. Chatli, A. K. Biswas, and J. Sahoo. 2011. Quality of omega-3 fatty acids enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil. J. Food Sci. Technol. (In press)
- Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1995. Statistical methods, 8th edn. IOWA. State University Press, Ames, IOWA.
- Tarladgis, B. G., B. M. Watts, M. T. Yaunathan, and L. R. Dugan. 1960. A distillation methods for the quantitative determination of malonaaldehyde in rancid foods. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 37: 44-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02630824
- Trout, E. S., M. C. Hunt, D. E. Johnson, J. R. Claus, C. L. Kastner, and D. H. Kropt. 1992. Characterstics of low fat ground beef containing texture modifying ingredients. J. Food Sci. 57:19-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1992.tb05415.x
- Turhan, S., I. Sagir, and N. S. Ustun. 2005. Utilization of hazelnut pellicle in low-fat beef burgers. Meat Sci. 71:312-316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.03.027
- Turhan, S., H. Temiz, and I. Sagir. 2007. Utilization of wet okara in low-fat beef patties. J. Muscle Foods. 18:226-235. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4573.2007.00081.x
- Valencia, I., M. N. O’Grady, D. Ansorena, I. Astiasaran, and J. P. Kerry. 2008. Enhancement of the nutritional status and quality of fresh pork sausages following the addition of linseed oil, fish oil and natural antioxidants. Meat Sci. 80:1046-1054. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.04.024
- Verma, A. K., B. D. Sharma, and R. Banerjee. 2010. Effect of sodium chloride replacement and apple pulp inclusion on the physic-chemical, textural and sensory properties of low fat chicken nuggets. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 43:715-719. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2009.12.006
- Wang, Y., D. Li, L. Wang, and B. Adhikari. 2011. The effect of addition of flaxseed gum on the emulsion properties of soybean protein isolate (SPI). J. Food Eng. 104:56-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.11.027
- Watts, B. M. 1962. Meat products. Symposium on food lipids and their oxidation. Westport, CT: AVI Pub. Co. Inc. pp. 202
- Williams, P. 2007. The role of red meat in the Australian diet. Nutr. Diet 64(s4):S99-S195.
- Effect of aerobic packaging on storage quality of functional restructured spent hen meat slices at refrigeration temperature vol.47, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-08-2016-0119
- Evaluation of anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activity of various essential oils in fresh chicken sausages vol.54, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2461-z
- Effect of Honey on Quality Characteristics of Mutton Spread vol.6, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40003-017-0269-3
- Anti-oxidant and anti-microbial properties of mutton nuggets incorporated with blends of essential oils vol.55, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-3009-6