- Volume 27 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy in Steers Fed Diets with Different Starch:ADF Ratios
- Lopez-Soto, M.A. (Research Institute of Veterinary Sciences, University Autonomous of Baja California) ;
- Rivera-Mendez, C.R. (Research Institute of Veterinary Sciences, University Autonomous of Baja California) ;
- Aguilar-Hernandez, J.A. (Research Institute of Veterinary Sciences, University Autonomous of Baja California) ;
- Barreras, A. (Research Institute of Veterinary Sciences, University Autonomous of Baja California) ;
- Calderon-Cortes, J.F. (Research Institute of Veterinary Sciences, University Autonomous of Baja California) ;
- Plascencia, A. (Research Institute of Veterinary Sciences, University Autonomous of Baja California) ;
- Davila-Ramos, H. (Veterinary School, University Autonomous of Sinaloa) ;
- Estrada-Angulo, A. (Veterinary School, University Autonomous of Sinaloa) ;
- Valdes-Garcia, Y.S. (Academic Unit of Veterinary and Animal Science, University Autonomous of Nayarit)
- Received : 2013.07.07
- Accepted : 2013.09.01
- Published : 2014.02.01
As a result of the cost of grains, the replacement of grains by co-products (i.e. DDGS) in feedlot diets is a common practice. This change produces diets that contain a lower amount of starch and greater amount of fibre. Hypothetically, combining feed grade urea (U) with slow release urea (Optigen) in this type of diet should elicit a better synchrony between starch (high-rate of digestion) and fibre (low-rate of digestion) promoting a better microbial protein synthesis and ruminal digestion with increasing the digestible energy of the diet. Four cannulated Holstein steers (
- AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis, 17th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, Maryland.
- Bergen, W. G., D. B. Purser, and J. H. Cline. 1968. Effect of ration on the nutritive quality of rumen microbial protein. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1497-1501.
- Burroughs, W., D. K. Nelson, and D. R. Mertens. 1975. Protein physiology and its application in the lactating cow: The metabolizable protein feeding standard. J. Anim. Sci. 41:933-944.
- Depenbusch, B. E., E. R. Loe, M. J. Quinn, M. E. Corrigan, M. L. Gibson, K. K. Karges, and J. S. Drouillard. 2008. Corn distillers grains with solubles derived from a traditional or partial fractionation process: Growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing feedlot heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2338-2343. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0501
- Carrasco, R., A. A. Arrizon, A. Plascencia, N. G. Torrentera, and R. A. Zinn. 2013. Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth-performance, and dietary energetic. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1801-1810. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5260
- FASS. 2010. Guide for the care and use of agricultural animals in agricultural research and teaching, 3rd Ed. Federation of Animal Science Societies. Champaign, IL.
- Grant, R. J., and S. J. Weidner. 1992. Digestion kinetics of fiber: Influence of in vitro buffer pH varied within observed physiological range. J. Dairy Sci. 75:1060-1068. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)77850-3
- Haaland, G. L., H. F. Tyrrell, P. W. Moe, and W. E. Wheeler. 1982. Effect of crude protein level and limestone buffer in diets fed at two levels of intake on rumen pH, ammonia-nitrogen, buffering capacity and volatile fatty acid concentration of cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 55:943-950.
- Hill, F. N. and D. L. Anderson. 1958. Comparison of metabolizable energy and productive determinations with growing chicks. J. Nutr. 64:587-603.
- Holter, J. A. and J. T. Reid. 1959. Relationship between the concentrations of crude protein and apparently digestible protein in forages. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1339-1349.
- Huntington, G. B. 1997. Starch utilization by ruminants: from basics to the bunk. J. Anim. Sci. 75:852-867.
- Klopfenstein, T. J., G. E. Erickson, and V. R. Bremer. 2008. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Use of distillers by-products in the beef cattle feeding industry. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1223-1231.
- NRC. 1985. Ruminant nitrogen usage. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
- NRC. 1996. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 7th Ed. National Academy of Press, Washington, DC.
- Milton, C. T., R. T. Brandt Jr., and E. C. Titgemeyer. 1997. Urea in dry rolled corn diets: Finishing steers performance, nutrient digestion and microbial protein production. J. Anim. Sci. 75: 1415-1424.
- Orskov, E. R. 1992. Protein nutrition in ruminants. 2nd Ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
- Peters, J. P., R. Y. W. Shen, and J. A. Robinson. 1992. Disappearance of acetic acid from the bovine reticulumrumen at based and elevated concentration of acetic acid. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1509-1517.
- Rosentrater, K. A. 2012. Feeding DDGS in other animals. In: Distiller grain, production properties and utilization (Ed. K. Lui and K. A. Rosentrater). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 391-397.
- Russell, J. R., A. W. Young, and N. A. Jorgensen. 1980. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and limestone additions to high grain diets on feedlot performance and ruminal and fecal parameters in finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 51:996-1002.
- Russell, J. B. and D. B. Wilson. 1996. Why are ruminal cellulolytic bacteria unable to digest cellulose at low pH? J. Dairy Sci. 79:1503-1509. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76510-4
- Seo, J. K., M. H. Kim, J. Y. Yang, H. J. Kim, C. H. Lee, K. H. Kim, and J. K. Ha. 2013. Effects of synchronicity of carbohydrate and protein degradation on rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 26:358-365. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12507
- SAS Institute Inc. 2004. SAS/STAT User's Guide: Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Caroline.
- Uwituze, S., G. L. Parsons, M. K. Shelor, B. E. Depenbusch, K. K. Karges, M. L. Gibson, C. D. Reinhardt, J. J. Higgins, and J. S. Drouillard. 2010. Evaluation of dried distillers grains and roughage source in steam-flaked corn. J. Anim. Sci. 88:258-274. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1342
- Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy. Sci. 74:3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
- Zinn, R. A. 1990. Influence of steaming time on site digestion of flaked corn in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 68:776-781.
- Zinn, R. A., R. Barrajas, M. Montaño, and R. A. Ware. 2003. Influence of dietary urea level on digestive function and growth peformance of cattle fed steam-flaked barley- based finishing diets. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2383-2389.
- Zinn, R. A. and F. N. Owens. 1986. A rapid procedure for purine measurement and its use for estimating net ruminal protein synthesis. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 66:157-166. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas86-017
- Zinn, R. A. and F. N. Owens. 1983. Site of protein digestion in steers: Predictability. J. Anim. Sci. 56:707-716.
- Zinn, R. A. and A. Plascencia. 1993. Interaction of whole cottonseed and supplemental fat on digestive function in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 71:11-17.
- Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics of Feedlot Lambs Fed Finishing Diets with Different Starch to Acid Detergent Fiber Ratios vol.29, pp.12, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0013
- Effects of polymer coated slow-release urea on ruminal fermentation and nutrient total tract digestion of beef steers vol.45, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902016000200004
- Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle vol.93, pp.8, 2015, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2014-8299