- Volume 27 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Effect of Dietary Phytase Transgenic Corn on Physiological Characteristics and the Fate of Recombinant Plant DNA in Laying Hens
- Gao, Chunqi (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
- Ma, Qiugang (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
- Zhao, Lihong (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
- Zhang, Jianyun (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
- Ji, Cheng (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University)
- Received : 2013.05.15
- Accepted : 2013.08.19
- Published : 2014.01.01
The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens.
- Aeschbacher, K., R. Messikommer, L. Meile, and C. Wenk. 2005. Bt176 corn in poultry nutrition: Physiological characteristics and fate of recombinant plant DNA in chickens. Poult. Sci. 84: 385-394. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.3.385
- AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis. 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
- Appenzeller, L. M., S. M. Munley, D. Hoban, G. P. Sykes, L. A. Malley, and B. Delaney. 2009. Subchronic feeding study of grain from herbicide-tolerant maize DP-O9814O-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 47:2269-2280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.06.014
- Aulrich, K., H. Bohme, R. Daenicke, I. Halle, and G. Flachowsky. 2001. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 54:183-195. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450390109381977
- Carlos, A. B. and H. M. Edwards, Jr. 1998. The effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalicferol and phytase on the natural phytate phosphorus utilization by laying hens. Poult. Sci. 77:850-858. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/77.6.850
- Chen, R., G. X. Xue, P. Chen, B. Yao, W. Z. Yang, Q. L. Ma, Y. L. Fan, Z. Y. Zhao, M. C. Tarczynski, and J. R. Shi. 2008. Transgenic maize plants expressing a fungal phytase gene. Transgenic Res. 17:633-643. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11248-007-9138-3
- Engelen, A. J., F. C. van der Heeft, P. H. G. Randsdorp, W. A. C. Somers, J. Schaefer, and B. J. C. van der Blat. 2001. Determination of phytase activity in feed by a colorometric enzymatic method: Collaborative interlaboratory study. J. AOAC Int. 84:629-633.
- Frost, T. J., and D. A. Roland, Sr.. 1991. The influence of various calcium and phosphorus concentrations on tibia strength and eggshell quality of pullets during peak production. Poult. Sci. 70:963-969. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0700963
- Gao, C. Q., Q. G. Ma, C. Ji, X. G. Luo, H. F. Tang, and Y. M. Wei. 2012. Evaluation of the compositional and nutritional equivalency of phytase transgenic corn to conventional corn in roosters. Poult. Sci. 91:1142-1148. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2011-01915
- Gao, C. Q., S. G. Wu, H. Y. Yue, G. Ji, H. J. Zhang, Q. S. Liu, Z. Y. Fan, F. Z. Liu, and G. H. Qi. 2010. Toxicity of dietary melamine to laying ducks: Biochemical and histopathological changes and residue in eggs. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:5199-5205. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf904595q
- James, C. 2012. Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: 2012. ISAAA Briefs No. 44. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY.
- Jennings, J. C., D. C. Kolwyck, S. B. Kays, A. J. Whetsell, J. B. Surber, G. L. Cromwell, R. P . Lirette, and K. C. Glenn. 2003. Determining whether transgenic and endogenous plant DNA and transgenic protein are detectable in muscle from swine fed Roundup Ready soybean. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1447-1455
- Li, S. F., Y. B. Niu, J. S. Liu, L. Lu, L. Y. Zhang, C. Y. Ran, M. S. Feng, B. Du, J. L. Deng, and X. G. Luo. 2013. Energy, amino acid, and phosphorus digestibility of phytase transgenic corn for growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:298-308. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5211
- Ma, Q. G., C. Q. Gao, J. Y. Zhang, L. H. Zhao, W. B. Hao, and C. Ji. 2013. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA fragments and proteins in the digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs of laying hens fed with phytase transgenic corn. PLoS ONE 8: e61138. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061138
- Maenz, D. D. 2001. Enzymatic characteristics of phytases as they relate to their use in animal feeds. Pages 61-83. In: Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition (Ed. M. R. Bedford and G. G. Partridge). CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
- McNaughton, J., M. Roberts, B. Smith, D. Rice, M. Hinds, J. Schmidt, M. Locke, K. Brink, A. Bryant, C. Sanders, R. Layton, I. Lamb, and B. Delaney. 2008. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing transgenic maize grains from event DP-O9814O-6 (Optimum GAT), nearisogenic control maize grain, or commercial reference maize grains. Poult. Sci. 87:2562-2572. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2008-00017
- Myers, W. D., P. A. Ludden, V. Nayigihugu, and B. W. Hess. 2004. Technical note: A procedure for the preparation and quantitative analysis of samples for titanium dioxide. J. Anim. Sci. 82:179-183.
- National Research Council (NRC). 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th revised ed. National Academy Press, Washington DC, 42-43.
- Nyannor, E. K. D. and O. Adeola. 2008. Corn expressing an Escherichia coli-derived phytase gene: Comparative evaluation study in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 87:2015-2022. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00501
- Perney, K. M., A. H. Cantor, M. L. Straw, and K. L. Herkelman. 1993. The effect of dietary phytase on growth performance and phosphorus utilization of broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 72:2106-2114. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0722106
- Phipps, R. H., E. R. Deaville, and B. C.Maddison. 2003. Detection of transgenic DNA and protein in rumen fluid, duodenal digesta, milk, blood and faeces of lactating dairy cows. Am. J. Dairy Sci. 86:4070-4078. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)74019-3
- Ravindran, V., P. C. Morel, G. G. Partridge, M. Hruby, and J. S. Sands. 2006. Influence of an Escherichia coli-derived phytase on nutrient utilization in broiler starters fed diets containing varying concentrations of phytic acid. Poult. Sci. 85:82-89. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/85.1.82
- Ravindran, V., W. L. Bryden, and E. T. Kornegay. 1995. Phytates: Occurrence, bioavailability and implications in poultry nutrition. Poult. Avian Biol. Rev. 6:125-143.
- Reuter, T. and K. Aulrich. 2003. Investigation on genetically modified maize (Bt-maize) in pig nutrition: Fate of feed-ingested foreign DNA in pig bodies. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 216:185-192.
- Simons, P. C. M., H. A. J. Versteegh, A. W. Jongbloed, P. A. Kemme, M. G. E. Wolters, R. F. Beudeker, and G. J. Verschoor. 1990. Improvement of phosphorus availability by microbial phytase in broilers and pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 64:525-540. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19900052
- Walsh, M. C., S. G. Buzoianu, G. E. Gardiner, M. C. Rea, R. P. Ross, J. P. Cassidy, and P. G. Lawlor. 2012. Effects of short-term feeding of Bt MON810 maize on growth performance, organ morphology and function in pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 107:364-371. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511003011
- Walsh, M. C., S. G. Buzoianu, G. E. Gardiner, M. C. Rea, E. Gelencser, A. Janosi, M. M. Epstein, R. P. Ross, and P. G. Lawlor. 2011. Fate of transgenic DNA from orally administered Bt MON810 maize and effects on immune response and growth in pigs. PLoS One 6:e27177. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027177
- Zhang, Z. B., E. T. Kornegay, J. S. Radcliffe, D. M. Denbow, H. P. Veit, and C. T. Larsen. 2000. Comparison of genetically engineered microbial and plant phytase for young broilers. Poult. Sci. 79:709-717. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.5.709
- Safety Evaluation of Stacked Genetically Modified Corn Event (MON89034 × MON88017) Using Zebrafish as an Animal Model vol.06, pp.14, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2015.614134
- Genetically modified phytase crops role in sustainable plant and animal nutrition and ecological development: a review vol.7, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-017-0797-3