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Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus

  • Okorie, Okorie E. (Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture/Feeds and Foods Nutrition Research Center, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Bae, Jun Young (Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture/Feeds and Foods Nutrition Research Center, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Lee, Jun-Ho (Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture/Feeds and Foods Nutrition Research Center, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Lee, Seunghyung (Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture/Feeds and Foods Nutrition Research Center, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Park, Gun-Hyun (Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture/Feeds and Foods Nutrition Research Center, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Mohseni, Mahmoud (Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture/Feeds and Foods Nutrition Research Center, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Bai, Sungchul C. (Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture/Feeds and Foods Nutrition Research Center, Pukyong National University)
  • Received : 2011.07.12
  • Accepted : 2011.11.07
  • Published : 2014.01.01

Abstract

This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride ($CdCl_2$) as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging $5.5{\pm}0.06$ g (mean${\pm}$SD) were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 ($C_0$), 21.0 ($C_{21}$), 40.7 ($C_{41}$), 83.5 ($C_{83}$), 162 ($C_{162}$), 1,387 ($C_{1,387}$) and 2,743 ($C_{2,743}$) mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE) of fish fed $C_{21}$ were significantly higher than those of fish fed $C_{83}$, $C_{162}$, $C_{1,387}$ and $C_{2,743}$ (p<0.05). Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed $C_0$, $C_{21}$ and $C_{41}$ were significantly higher than those of fish fed $C_{162}$, $C_{1,387}$ and $C_{2,743}$. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed $C_0$, $C_{21}$ and $C_{41}$ were significantly higher than those of fish fed $C_{1,387}$ and $C_{2,743}$. Average survival of fish fed $C_0$, $C_{21}$, $C_{41}$ and $C_{162}$ were significantly higher than that of fish fed $C_{2,743}$. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed $C_0$, $C_{21}$, $C_{41}$ and $C_{83}$ were significantly lower than those of fish fed $C_{162}$, $C_{1,387}$ and $C_{2,743}$. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet.

Keywords

Dietary Cadmium;Parrotfish;Growth;Tissue Accumulation

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)

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