DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Development, implementation and verification of a user configurable platform for real-time hybrid simulation

  • 투고 : 2014.04.20
  • 심사 : 2014.08.05
  • 발행 : 2014.12.25

초록

This paper presents a user programmable computational/control platform developed to conduct real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS). The architecture of this platform is based on the integration of a real-time controller and a field programmable gate array (FPGA).This not only enables the user to apply user-defined control laws to control the experimental substructures, but also provides ample computational resources to run the integration algorithm and analytical substructure state determination in real-time. In this platform the need for SCRAMNet as the communication device between real-time and servo-control workstations has been eliminated which was a critical component in several former RTHS platforms. The accuracy of the servo-hydraulic actuator displacement control, where the control tasks get executed on the FPGA was verified using single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and 2 degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) experimental substructures. Finally, the functionality of the proposed system as a robust and reliable RTHS platform for performance evaluation of structural systems was validated by conducting real-time hybrid simulation of a three story nonlinear structure with SDOF and 2DOF experimental substructures. Also, tracking indicators were employed to assess the accuracy of the results.

과제정보

연구 과제 주관 기관 : NSERC

참고문헌

  1. Ashasi-Sorkhabi, A., Malekghasemi, H. and Mercan, O. (2013), "Implementation and verification of real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) using a shake table for research and education", J. Vib. Control, DOI: 10.1177/1077546313498616. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077546313498616
  2. Chae, Y., Kazemibidokhti, K. and Ricles, J.M. (2013a), "Adaptive time series compensator for delay compensation of servo-hydraulic actuator systems for real-time hybrid simulation", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 42(11), 1697-1715. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2294
  3. Ashasi-Sorkhabi, A. and Mercan, O. (2013), "The effects of measurement errors in the restoring force feedback during real-time hybrid simulations", Proceeding of the 9th International Conference on Earthquake Resistant Engineering Structures (ERES), A Coruna, Spain, July.
  4. Carrion, J.E. and Spencer Jr., B.F. (2006), "Real-time hybrid testing using model-based delay compensation", Proceeding of the 4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan.
  5. Carrion, J.E., Spencer Jr., B.F. and Phillips, B.M. (2009), "Real-time hybrid simulation for structural control performance assessment", Earthq. Eng. Eng. Vib., 8, 481-492. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11803-009-9122-4
  6. Chae, Y., Ricles, J.M. and Sause, R. (2013b), "Modeling of a large-scale magneto-rheological damper for seismic hazard mitigation. Part II: Semi-active mode", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 42(5), 687-703. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2236
  7. Chen, C. (2007), Development and numerical simulation of hybrid effective force testing method, Ph.D. Dissertation, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa.
  8. Chen, C. and Ricles, J.M. (2010), "Tracking error-based servohydraulic Actuator Adaptive Compensation for real-time hybrid simulation", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 136(4), 432-440. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000124
  9. Chen, C., Ricles, J.M. and Guo, T. (2012), "Improved adaptive inverse compensation technique for real-time Hybrid simulation", J. Eng. Mech. - ASCE, 138(12), 1432-1446. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000450
  10. Chen, P.C. and Tsai, K.C. (2013), "Dual compensation strategy for real-time hybrid testing", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 42(1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2189
  11. Christenson, R.E., Lin, Y.Z., Emmons, A.T. and Bass, B. (2008), "Large-scale experimental verification of semi-active control through real-time hybrid simulation", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 134(4), 522-535. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2008)134:4(522)
  12. CompactRio Developers Guide (2009), National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
  13. Dermitzakis, S.N. and Mahin, S.A. (1985), Development of substructuring techniques for on-line computer controlled seismic performance testing, Report UBC/EERC-85/04, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
  14. Hilber, H.M., Hughes, T.J.R. and Taylor, R.L. (1977), "Improved numerical dissipation for time integration algorithms in structural dynamics", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 5(3), 283-292. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290050306
  15. Gao, X., Castaneda, N. and Dyke, S.J. (2013), "Real time hybrid simulation: from dynamic system, motion control to experimental error", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 42(6), 815-832. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2246
  16. Harvey, A.F. and Data Acquisition Division Staff (1991), DMA Fundamentals on Various PC Platforms, Application Note 011, National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
  17. Hessabi, R.M. and Mercan, O. (2012), "Phase and amplitude error indices for error quantification in pseudodynamic testing", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 41(10), 1347-1364. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.1186
  18. Horiuchi, T., Inoue, M., Konno, T. and Namita, Y. (1999), "Real-time hybrid experimental system with actuator delay compensation and its application to a piping system with energy absorber", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 28(10), 1121-1141. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9845(199910)28:10<1121::AID-EQE858>3.0.CO;2-O
  19. Horiuchi, T. and Konno, T. (2001), "A new method for compensating actuator delay in real-time hybrid experiment", Philos. T. R. Soc. Lond., 359(1786), 1893-1909. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2001.0878
  20. Jung, R.Y. and Shing, P.B. (2006), "Performance evaluation of a real-time pseudodynamic test system", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 35(7), 789-810. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.547
  21. Karavasilis, T.L., Ricles, J.M., Sause, R. and Chen, C. (2011), "Experimental evaluation of the seismic performance of steel MRFs with compressed elastomer dampers using large-scale real-time hybrid simulation", Eng. Struct., 33(6), 1859-1869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.01.032
  22. LabVIEW Tutorial Manual(1996), National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
  23. Liu, J., Dyke, S.J., Liu, H.J., Gao, X.Y. and Phillips, B. (2013), "A novel integrated compensation method for actuator dynamics in real-time hybrid structural testing", Struct. Control Health Monit., 20(7) ,1057-1080. https://doi.org/10.1002/stc.1519
  24. Mahin, S.A. andShing, P.B. (1985), "Pseudodynamic method for seismic testing", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 111(7), 1482-1503. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1985)111:7(1482)
  25. Mercan, O. and Ricles, J.M. (2007), "Stability and accuracy analysis of outer loop dynamics in real-time pseudodynamic testing of SDOF systems", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 36(11), 1523-1543. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.701
  26. Nakata, N, (2011), "A multi-purpose earthquake simulator and a flexible development platform for actuator controller design", J. Vib. Control, DOI: 10.1177/1077546311421946. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077546311421946
  27. Mercan, O., Ricles, J.M. and Sause, R. (2007), "Implementation of real-time hybrid pseudodynamic test method for evaluating seismic hazard mitigation measures", Proceeding of the Structures Congress (ASCE), Long Beach, CA, USA.
  28. Mercan, O. and Ricles, J.M. (2008), "Stability analysis for real-time pseudodynamic and hybrid pseudo dynamic testing with multiple sources of delay", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 37(10), 1269-1293. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.814
  29. Mercan, O. and Ricles, J.M. (2009), "Experimental studies on real-time pseudodynamic (PSD) and hybrid PSD testing of structures with elastomeric dampers", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 135(9), 1124-1133. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2009)135:9(1124)
  30. Nakashima, M., Kato, H. and Takaoka, E. (1992), "Development of real-time pseudodynamic testing", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 21(1), 79-92. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290210106
  31. NI 9237 User Guide and Specifications (2007), National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
  32. NI 9239 User Guide and Specifications (2007), National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
  33. NI 9481 Operating Instructions and Specifications (2008), National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
  34. Phillips, B.M. and Spencer Jr., B.F.(2011), Model-based feedforward-feedback tracking control for real-time hybrid simulation, NSEL Report Series, Report No. NSEL-028.
  35. Reinhorn, A.M., Sivaselvan, M.V., Liang, Z. and Shao, X. (2004), "Real-time dynamic hybrid testing of structural systems", Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (WCEE), Vancouver, B.C., Canada.
  36. Shao, X., Reinhorn, A.M. and Sivaselvan, M. (2006), "Real-time dynamichybrid testing using force-based substructuring", Proceeding of the Structures Congress (ASCE), Reston, Va.
  37. Shing, P.B., Spacone, E. and Stauffer, E. (2002), "Conceptual design of a fast hybrid test system at the University of Colorado", Proceeding of the 7th US Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Boston, MA, USA.
  38. Takanashi, K., Udagawa, K., Seki, M., Okada, T. and Tanaka, H. (1975), "Non-linear earthquake response analysis of structures by a computer actuator on-line system", Bulletin of Earthquake Resistant Structure Reasearch Center, No. 8, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
  39. Wallace, M.I., Sieber, J., Nield, S.A., Wagg, D.J. and Krauskopf, B. (2005), "Stability analysis of real-time dynamic substructuring using delay differential equations", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 34(15), 1817-1832. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.513
  40. Wu, B., Shi, P. and Ou, J. (2013), "Seismic performance of structures incorporating magnetorheological dampers with pseudo-negative stiffness", Struct. Control Health Monit., 20(3), 405-421. https://doi.org/10.1002/stc.504
  41. Wu, B., Xu, G., Wang, Q. and Williams, M.S. (2006), "Operator-splitting method for real-time substructuring testing", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 35(3), 293-314. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.519
  42. Zhao, J., French, C., Shield, C., and Posbergh, T. (2003), "Considerations for the development of real-time dynamic testing using servohydraulicactuation", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 32(11), 1773-1794. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.301

피인용 문헌

  1. A state space-based explicit integration method for real-time hybrid simulation vol.23, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/stc.1798
  2. Real-time hybrid simulation of structures equipped with viscoelastic-plastic dampers using a user-programmable computational platform vol.16, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11803-017-0408-7
  3. A new tracking error-based adaptive controller for servo-hydraulic actuator control vol.22, pp.12, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077546314548205
  4. Mitigating Pedestrian Bridge Motions Using a Deployable Autonomous Control System vol.24, pp.1, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0001304