- Volume 14 Issue 6
DOI QR Code
Development, implementation and verification of a user configurable platform for real-time hybrid simulation
- Ashasi-Sorkhabi, Ali (Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto) ;
- Mercan, Oya (Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto)
- Received : 2014.04.20
- Accepted : 2014.08.05
- Published : 2014.12.25
This paper presents a user programmable computational/control platform developed to conduct real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS). The architecture of this platform is based on the integration of a real-time controller and a field programmable gate array (FPGA).This not only enables the user to apply user-defined control laws to control the experimental substructures, but also provides ample computational resources to run the integration algorithm and analytical substructure state determination in real-time. In this platform the need for SCRAMNet as the communication device between real-time and servo-control workstations has been eliminated which was a critical component in several former RTHS platforms. The accuracy of the servo-hydraulic actuator displacement control, where the control tasks get executed on the FPGA was verified using single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and 2 degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) experimental substructures. Finally, the functionality of the proposed system as a robust and reliable RTHS platform for performance evaluation of structural systems was validated by conducting real-time hybrid simulation of a three story nonlinear structure with SDOF and 2DOF experimental substructures. Also, tracking indicators were employed to assess the accuracy of the results.
Supported by : NSERC
- Ashasi-Sorkhabi, A., Malekghasemi, H. and Mercan, O. (2013), "Implementation and verification of real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) using a shake table for research and education", J. Vib. Control, DOI: 10.1177/1077546313498616. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077546313498616
- Ashasi-Sorkhabi, A. and Mercan, O. (2013), "The effects of measurement errors in the restoring force feedback during real-time hybrid simulations", Proceeding of the 9th International Conference on Earthquake Resistant Engineering Structures (ERES), A Coruna, Spain, July.
- Carrion, J.E. and Spencer Jr., B.F. (2006), "Real-time hybrid testing using model-based delay compensation", Proceeding of the 4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan.
- Carrion, J.E., Spencer Jr., B.F. and Phillips, B.M. (2009), "Real-time hybrid simulation for structural control performance assessment", Earthq. Eng. Eng. Vib., 8, 481-492. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11803-009-9122-4
- Chae, Y., Kazemibidokhti, K. and Ricles, J.M. (2013a), "Adaptive time series compensator for delay compensation of servo-hydraulic actuator systems for real-time hybrid simulation", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 42(11), 1697-1715. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2294
- Chae, Y., Ricles, J.M. and Sause, R. (2013b), "Modeling of a large-scale magneto-rheological damper for seismic hazard mitigation. Part II: Semi-active mode", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 42(5), 687-703. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2236
- Chen, C. (2007), Development and numerical simulation of hybrid effective force testing method, Ph.D. Dissertation, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa.
- Chen, C. and Ricles, J.M. (2010), "Tracking error-based servohydraulic Actuator Adaptive Compensation for real-time hybrid simulation", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 136(4), 432-440. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000124
- Chen, C., Ricles, J.M. and Guo, T. (2012), "Improved adaptive inverse compensation technique for real-time Hybrid simulation", J. Eng. Mech. - ASCE, 138(12), 1432-1446. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000450
- Chen, P.C. and Tsai, K.C. (2013), "Dual compensation strategy for real-time hybrid testing", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 42(1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2189
- Christenson, R.E., Lin, Y.Z., Emmons, A.T. and Bass, B. (2008), "Large-scale experimental verification of semi-active control through real-time hybrid simulation", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 134(4), 522-535. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2008)134:4(522)
- CompactRio Developers Guide (2009), National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
- Dermitzakis, S.N. and Mahin, S.A. (1985), Development of substructuring techniques for on-line computer controlled seismic performance testing, Report UBC/EERC-85/04, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
- Gao, X., Castaneda, N. and Dyke, S.J. (2013), "Real time hybrid simulation: from dynamic system, motion control to experimental error", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 42(6), 815-832. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2246
- Harvey, A.F. and Data Acquisition Division Staff (1991), DMA Fundamentals on Various PC Platforms, Application Note 011, National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
- Hessabi, R.M. and Mercan, O. (2012), "Phase and amplitude error indices for error quantification in pseudodynamic testing", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 41(10), 1347-1364. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.1186
- Hilber, H.M., Hughes, T.J.R. and Taylor, R.L. (1977), "Improved numerical dissipation for time integration algorithms in structural dynamics", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 5(3), 283-292. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290050306
- Horiuchi, T., Inoue, M., Konno, T. and Namita, Y. (1999), "Real-time hybrid experimental system with actuator delay compensation and its application to a piping system with energy absorber", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 28(10), 1121-1141. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9845(199910)28:10<1121::AID-EQE858>3.0.CO;2-O
- Horiuchi, T. and Konno, T. (2001), "A new method for compensating actuator delay in real-time hybrid experiment", Philos. T. R. Soc. Lond., 359(1786), 1893-1909. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2001.0878
- Jung, R.Y. and Shing, P.B. (2006), "Performance evaluation of a real-time pseudodynamic test system", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 35(7), 789-810. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.547
- Karavasilis, T.L., Ricles, J.M., Sause, R. and Chen, C. (2011), "Experimental evaluation of the seismic performance of steel MRFs with compressed elastomer dampers using large-scale real-time hybrid simulation", Eng. Struct., 33(6), 1859-1869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.01.032
- LabVIEW Tutorial Manual(1996), National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
- Liu, J., Dyke, S.J., Liu, H.J., Gao, X.Y. and Phillips, B. (2013), "A novel integrated compensation method for actuator dynamics in real-time hybrid structural testing", Struct. Control Health Monit., 20(7) ,1057-1080. https://doi.org/10.1002/stc.1519
- Mahin, S.A. andShing, P.B. (1985), "Pseudodynamic method for seismic testing", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 111(7), 1482-1503. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1985)111:7(1482)
- Mercan, O. and Ricles, J.M. (2007), "Stability and accuracy analysis of outer loop dynamics in real-time pseudodynamic testing of SDOF systems", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 36(11), 1523-1543. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.701
- Mercan, O., Ricles, J.M. and Sause, R. (2007), "Implementation of real-time hybrid pseudodynamic test method for evaluating seismic hazard mitigation measures", Proceeding of the Structures Congress (ASCE), Long Beach, CA, USA.
- Mercan, O. and Ricles, J.M. (2008), "Stability analysis for real-time pseudodynamic and hybrid pseudo dynamic testing with multiple sources of delay", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 37(10), 1269-1293. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.814
- Mercan, O. and Ricles, J.M. (2009), "Experimental studies on real-time pseudodynamic (PSD) and hybrid PSD testing of structures with elastomeric dampers", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 135(9), 1124-1133. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2009)135:9(1124)
- Nakashima, M., Kato, H. and Takaoka, E. (1992), "Development of real-time pseudodynamic testing", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 21(1), 79-92. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290210106
- Nakata, N, (2011), "A multi-purpose earthquake simulator and a flexible development platform for actuator controller design", J. Vib. Control, DOI: 10.1177/1077546311421946. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077546311421946
- NI 9237 User Guide and Specifications (2007), National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
- NI 9239 User Guide and Specifications (2007), National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
- NI 9481 Operating Instructions and Specifications (2008), National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA.
- Phillips, B.M. and Spencer Jr., B.F.(2011), Model-based feedforward-feedback tracking control for real-time hybrid simulation, NSEL Report Series, Report No. NSEL-028.
- Reinhorn, A.M., Sivaselvan, M.V., Liang, Z. and Shao, X. (2004), "Real-time dynamic hybrid testing of structural systems", Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (WCEE), Vancouver, B.C., Canada.
- Shao, X., Reinhorn, A.M. and Sivaselvan, M. (2006), "Real-time dynamichybrid testing using force-based substructuring", Proceeding of the Structures Congress (ASCE), Reston, Va.
- Shing, P.B., Spacone, E. and Stauffer, E. (2002), "Conceptual design of a fast hybrid test system at the University of Colorado", Proceeding of the 7th US Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Boston, MA, USA.
- Takanashi, K., Udagawa, K., Seki, M., Okada, T. and Tanaka, H. (1975), "Non-linear earthquake response analysis of structures by a computer actuator on-line system", Bulletin of Earthquake Resistant Structure Reasearch Center, No. 8, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
- Wallace, M.I., Sieber, J., Nield, S.A., Wagg, D.J. and Krauskopf, B. (2005), "Stability analysis of real-time dynamic substructuring using delay differential equations", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 34(15), 1817-1832. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.513
- Wu, B., Shi, P. and Ou, J. (2013), "Seismic performance of structures incorporating magnetorheological dampers with pseudo-negative stiffness", Struct. Control Health Monit., 20(3), 405-421. https://doi.org/10.1002/stc.504
- Wu, B., Xu, G., Wang, Q. and Williams, M.S. (2006), "Operator-splitting method for real-time substructuring testing", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 35(3), 293-314. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.519
- Zhao, J., French, C., Shield, C., and Posbergh, T. (2003), "Considerations for the development of real-time dynamic testing using servohydraulicactuation", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 32(11), 1773-1794. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.301
- A state space-based explicit integration method for real-time hybrid simulation vol.23, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/stc.1798
- Real-time hybrid simulation of structures equipped with viscoelastic-plastic dampers using a user-programmable computational platform vol.16, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11803-017-0408-7
- A new tracking error-based adaptive controller for servo-hydraulic actuator control vol.22, pp.12, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077546314548205
- Mitigating Pedestrian Bridge Motions Using a Deployable Autonomous Control System vol.24, pp.1, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0001304