High-strength RC columns subjected to high-axial and increasing cyclic lateral loads

  • Bhayusukma, Muhammad Y. (Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University) ;
  • Tsai, Keh-Chyuan (Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University)
  • Received : 2013.12.24
  • Accepted : 2014.03.29
  • Published : 2014.11.25


This experimental investigation was conducted to examine the behavior and response of high-strength material (HSM) reinforced concrete (RC) columns under combined high-axial and cyclic-increasing lateral loads. All the columns use high-strength concrete ($f_c{^{\prime}}$=100MPa) and high-yield strength steel ($f_y$=685MPa and $f_y$=785MPa) for both longitudinal and transverse reinforcements. A total of four full-scale HSM columns with amount of transverse reinforcement equal to 100% more than that required by earthquake resistant design provisions of ACI-318 were tested. The key differences among those four columns are the spacing and configuration of transverse reinforcements. Two different constant axial loads, i.e. 60% and 30% of column axial load capacity, were combined with cyclically-increasing lateral loads to impose reversed curvatures in the columns. Test results show that columns under 30% of axial load capacity behaved much more ductile and had higher lateral deformational capacity compared to columns under the 60% of axial load capacity. The columns using closer transverse reinforcement spacing have slightly higher ductility than columns with larger spacing.


high-strength concrete;high-yield strength steel;high-axial load;RC column;cyclic loads;ductility


Supported by : National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE)


  1. Ho, J.C.M. and Luo, L. (2012), "Uni-axial behaviour of normal-strength concrete-filled-steel-tube columns with external confinement", Earthq. Struct., 3(6), 889-910.
  2. Elwood, K.J., Maffei, J., Riedere, K.A. and Telleen, K. (2009), "Improving column confinement-Part 1: assessment of design provision", Concrete International, November.
  3. Kawai, T. (2007), "State-of-the-art report on high-strength concrete in Japan -recent developments and applications-,
  4. Rashid, M.A., Mansur, M.A. and Paramasivam, P. (2002), "Correlation between mechanical properties of high-strength concrete", ASCE J. Mater. Civil Eng., 14, (3), 230-238.
  5. Ashtiani, M.S., Scott, A.N. and Dhakal, R.P. (2013), "Mechanical and fresh properties of high-strength self-compacting concrete containing class C fly ash", Construct. Build. Mater., 47, 1217-1224.
  6. ACI Committee 318 (2011), Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI-318-11) and Commentary, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, USA.
  7. ACI Committee 363 (1992, Reapproved 1997), State-of-the-Art Report on High Strength Concrete (ACI 363R-92), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, USA.
  8. Ahn, J.M. and Shin, S.W. (2007), "An evaluation of ductility of high-strength reinforced concrete columns subjected to reversed cyclic loads under axial compression", Mag. Concrete Res.59(1), 29-44.
  9. Hwang, S.K., Yun, H.D., Park, W.S. and Han, B.C. (2005), "Seismic performance of high-strength concrete columns", Mag. Concrete Res., 57(5), 247-260.
  10. Bayrak, O. and Sheikh, S.A. (1997), "High-strength concrete columns under simulated earthquake loading", ACI Struct. J., 94(6), 708-722.
  11. Caballero-Morrison, K.E., Bonet, J.L, Navarro-Gregori, and Marti-Vargas, J.R. (2012), "Behaviour of steel-fibre-reinforced normal-strength concrete slender columns under cyclic loading", Eng. Struct., 39, 162-175.
  12. Hwang, S.K. and Yun, H.D. (2004), "Effect of transverse reinforcement on flexural behaviour of high-strength concrete columns", Eng. Struct., 26, 1-12.
  13. Legeron, F. and Paultre, P. (2000), "Behavior of high-strength columns under cyclic flexure and constant axial load", ACI Struct. J., 97(4), 591-601.
  14. Lepage, A., Tavallali, H., Pujol, S. and Rautenberg, J. (2008), "Towards earthquake-resistant concrete structures with ultra high-strength steel reinforcement", The 14th World Concference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, October.
  15. Li, B. and Park, R. (2004), "Confining reinforcement for high-strength columns", ACI Struct. J., 101(3), 314-324.
  16. Newmark, N.M. and Hall, W.J. (1980), Earthquake Spectra and Design, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Berkeley, California, USA
  17. Razvi, S.R., and Saatcioglu, M (1994), "Strength and deformability of confined high-strength concrete columns", ACI Struct. J., 91(6), 1-10.
  18. Sezen (2000), "Seismic behavior and modeling of reinforced concrete building columns", Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
  19. Sezen, H. and Moehle, J.P. (2006), "Seismic test of concrete columns with light transverse reinforcement", ACI Struct. J., 103(6), 842-849.
  20. Xiao, X., Guan, F.L. and Yan, S. (2008), "Use of ultra-high-strength bars for rectangular high-strength concrete frame columns", Mag. Concrete Res., 60(4), 253-259.
  21. Xiao, Y. and Yun, H.W. (2002), "Experimental studies on full-scale high-strength concrete columns", ACI Struct. J., 99(2), 129-207.
  22. Zhou, K.J.H., Ho, J.C.M. and Su, R.K.L. (2010), "Normalised rotation capacity for deformability evaluation of high-performance concrete beams", Earthq. Struct., 1(3), 269-287.

Cited by

  1. Experimental behavior and shear bearing capacity calculation of RC columns with a vertical splitting failure vol.9, pp.6, 2015,