- Volume 7 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
Advancing behavioral understanding and damage evaluation of concrete members using high-resolution digital image correlation data
- Sokoli, Drit (Department of Civil Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin) ;
- Shekarchi, William (Department of Civil Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin) ;
- Buenrostro, Eliud (JQ Dallas) ;
- Ghannoum, Wassim M. (JQ Dallas)
- Received : 2014.04.20
- Accepted : 2014.05.07
- Published : 2014.11.25
The capabilities of a high-resolution Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system are presented within the context of deformation measurements of full-scale concrete columns tested under reversed cyclic loading. The system was developed to have very high-resolution such that material strains on the order of the cracking stain of concrete could be measured on the surface of full-scale structural members. The high-resolution DIC system allows the measurement of a wide range of deformations and strains that could only be inferred or assumed previously. The DIC system is able to resolve the full profiles of member curvatures, rotations, plasticity spread, shear deformations, and bar-slip induced rotations. The system allows for automatic and objective measurement of crack widths and other damage indices that are indicative of cumulated damage and required repair time and cost. DIC damage measures contrast prevailing proxy damage indices based on member force-deformation data and subjective damage measures obtained using visual inspection. Data derived from high-resolution DIC systems is shown to be of great use in advancing the state of behavioral knowledge, calibrating behavioral and analytical models, and improving simulation accuracy.
digital image correlation;deformations;strains, damage index;concrete
Supported by : NUCOR Steel Seattle, the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute
- American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 318 (2011), "Building code requirement for structural concrete (ACI 318-11) and commentary", Farmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute
- American Society of Civil Engineers/Structural Engineering Institute (ASCE/SEI) Committee 41 (2007), "Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Structures", ASCE 41-06 Reston, VI, 428.
- ASTM Standard A706/A706M-13 (2013), "Standard specification for low-alloy steel deformed and plain bars for concrete reinforcement", ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA
- ASTM Standard A615/A615M-13 (2013), "Standard specification for deformed and plain carbon-steel bars for concrete reinforcement", ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA
- Bae, B. and Bayrak, O. (2008), "Plastic hinge length of reinforced concrete columns", ACI Struct. J., 105(3), 290-300
- Baker, A. and Amarakone, A. (1965), "Inelastic hyperstatic frames analysis", ACI Special Publication, 12, 85-142
- Corley, W.G. (1966), "Rotational capacity of reinforced concrete beams", Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, ST 5, 121-146
- Cosenza E., Manfredi, G. and Ramasco, R. (1993), "The use of damage functionals in earthquake engineering: a comparison between different models", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 22, 855-868 https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290221003
- Ghannoum, W.M and Moehle, J.P. (2012b), "Dynamic collapse analysis of a concrete frame sustaining column axial failures", ACI Struct. J., 109(3), 403-412.
- Eleftheriadou, A.K. and Karabinis, A.I. (1999), "Seismic vulnerability assessment of buildings based on damage data after a near field earthquake", Earthq. Struct., 3(2), 117-140
- Elwood, K.J. and Eberhard, M.O. (2009), "Effective stiffness of reinforced concrete columns", ACI Struct. J., 106(4), 476-484
- Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (1997), "NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings", FEMA-273, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, 435.
- Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2007), Interim Testing Protocols for Determining the Seismic Performance Characteristics of Structural and Nonstructural Components, FEMA-461, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, 138.
- Ghannoum, W.M., and Moehle, J.P. (2012a), "Shake-table tests of a concrete frame sustaining column axial failures", ACI Struct. J., 109(3), 393-402.
- Sezen, H. and Moehle, J.P. ( 2006), "Seismic tests of concrete columns with light transverse reinforcement", ACI Struct. J., 103(6), 842-849
- Ghannoum, W.M., Saouma, V., Haussmann, G., Polkinghorne, K., Eck, M. and Kang, D.H. (2012), "Experimental investigations of loading rate effects in reinforced concrete columns", J. Struct. Eng., 138(8), 1032-1041 https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000540
- Gerin, M. and Adebar, P. (2009), "Simple rational model for reinforced concrete subjected to seismic shear", J. Struct. Eng., 135(7), 753-761). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2009)135:7(753)
- IAAE 1996 - IAEE (1996), Regulations for Seismic Design. International Association for Earthquake Engineering, a world list.
- Kim, Y., Quinn, K.T., Satrom, C.N., Ghannoum, W.M. and Jirsa, J.O. (2011), "Shear strengthening RC T-beams using CFRP laminates and anchors", ACI Special Publication, SP275-36, 1-18.
- Leborgne, M.R., (2012), "Modeling the post shear failure behavior of Reinforced concrete columns", Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
- Lehman, D., Moehle, J., Mahin, S., Calderone, A. and Henry, L. (2004), "Experimental evaluation of the seismic performance of reinforced concrete bridge columns", J. Struct. Eng., 130(6), 869-879. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:6(869)
- Mendis, P. (2001), "Plastic hinge lengths of normal and high-strength concrete in flexure", Adv. Struct. Eng., 4(4), 189-195. https://doi.org/10.1260/136943301320896651
- Lynn, A.K. (2001), "Seismic evaluation of existing reinforced concrete building columns", Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.
- Mathworks (2014), "Matlab Image Processing Toolbox", http://www.mathworks.com/products/image/
- Macchi, G., Pinto, P.E. and Sanpaolesi, L. (1996), "Ductility requirements for reinforcement under Eurocodes", Struct. Eng. Int., 6(4), 249-254. https://doi.org/10.2749/101686696780496148
- National Instruments, 2014, "NI Vision Development Toolbox", http://www.ni.com/labview/vision/
- Park, Y.J and Ang, A.H.S. (1985), "Mechanical seismic damage model for reinforced concrete", ASCE, 111(4), 722-757 https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1985)111:4(722)
- Paulay, T. and Priestley, M.J.N. (1992), Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings, John Wiley and Sons, Canada
- Priestley, M.J.N., Seible, F. and Calvi, G.M. (1996), Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York
- Priestley, M.J.N. (2003), "Myths and fallacies in earthquake engineering, revisited" (In the Ninth Mallet Milne Lecture), Rose School, Pavia, Italy., 9-31
- Saatcioglu M. and Ozcebe, G. (1989), "Response of reinforced concrete columns to simulated seismic loading", ACI Struct. J., 86(1), 3-12
- Verderame, G.M., Fabbrocino, G. and Manfredi, G. (2008), "Seismic response of RC columns with smooth reinforcement. Part II: Cyclic tests", Eng. Struct., 30(9), 2289-2300 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2008.01.024
- Modeling of anchored CFRP strips bonded to concrete vol.85, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.03.096
- Performance of Concrete Panels Reinforced with Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer Materials vol.21, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0000758
- Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Panels Strengthened with Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymers vol.113, pp.5, 2016, https://doi.org/10.14359/51689031
- Use of Anchored Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Strips for Shear Strengthening of Large Girders vol.115, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.14359/51701092
- High-Strength Reinforcement in Columns under High Shear Stresses vol.113, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.14359/51688203