DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A Survey on the Salt Content of Kindergarten Lunch Meals and Meal Providers' Dietary Attitude to Sodium Intake in Gyeonggi-do Area

경기도지역 어린이집과 유치원 급식의 소금함량 및 유아 식사준비자의 나트륨 섭취관련 식태도 조사

  • Kim, Jin Nam (Department of Food Science & Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea) ;
  • Park, Seoyun (Department of Food Science & Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea) ;
  • Ahn, Sohyun (Department of Food Science & Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea) ;
  • Kim, Hye-Kyeong (Department of Food Science & Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea)
  • 김진남 (가톨릭대학교 생활과학부 식품영양학전공) ;
  • 박서연 (가톨릭대학교 생활과학부 식품영양학전공) ;
  • 안소현 (가톨릭대학교 생활과학부 식품영양학전공) ;
  • 김혜경 (가톨릭대학교 생활과학부 식품영양학전공)
  • Received : 2013.08.01
  • Accepted : 2013.09.06
  • Published : 2013.10.31

Abstract

Dietary habit of excess sodium consumption is formed mainly by excessive salt intake from the younger age and this may lead to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in kindergarten meals and provide basic data on meal providers' dietary attitude to sodium intake for nutrition education. We collected data on161 food items from 16 institutions in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food items. The average salt content from lunch meals was 2.2 g, which was about daily adequate intake of sodium for children aged 3 to 5 years old. Greatest contributor to the salt content in a meal was soup and stew (47.8%). The most salty dishes were sauces and kimchi followed by stir-fried food, deep-fried food, braised food, and grilled food. The salt content was higher in soup and stew despite of low salinity, due to the large quantity per serving. The salt contents of soups and kimchi were 40.6% and 14.3%, respectively of the total salt content in dish groups. Staff members and caregivers at home who prepared food for the child showed preference for one-dish rice meal, dried fish and salted mackerel, and broth when eating soup, stew, and noodles. Caregivers showed higher sodium index score and had higher preference for processed food such as Ramen, canned food, and ham compared with staff members (p < 0.05). These results suggested that monitoring salt content of kindergarten meals and nutrition education for those prepare meals for children are needed to lower sodium intake in childhood.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Catholic University of Korea

References

  1. Ahn S, Park S, Kim JN, Han SN, Jeong SB, Kim HK (2013): Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools. Nutr Res Pract 7(1): 59-65 https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2013.7.1.59
  2. Brion MJ, Ness AR, Davey Smith G, Emmett P, Rogers I, Whincup P, Lawlor DA (2008): Sodium intake in infancy and blood pressure at 7 years: findings from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children. Eur J Clin Nutr 62(10): 1162-1169 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602837
  3. de Wardeni HE, MacGregor GA (2002): Harmful effects of dietary salt in addition to hypertension. J Human Hypertens 16(4): 213-223 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jhh.1001374
  4. Gillespie AH (1981): A theoretical framework for studying school nutrition education program. J Nutr Educ 13(4): 131-133 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3182(81)80158-6
  5. He J, Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Charleston J, Klag MJ (2000): Longterm effects of weight loss and dietary reduction on incidence of hypertension. Hypertension 35(2): 544-549 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.35.2.544
  6. Hooper L, Bartlett C, Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S (2002): Systematic review of long term effects of advice to reduce dietary salt in adults. BMJ 325(7365): 628 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7365.628
  7. Jung EJ, Son SM, Kwon JS (2012): The effect of sodium reduction education program of a public health center on the blood pressure, blood biochemical profile and sodium intake of hypertensive adults. Korean J Community Nutr 17(6): 752-771 https://doi.org/10.5720/kjcn.2012.17.6.752
  8. Jung HR, Lee MJ, Kim KC, Kim JB, Kim DH, Kang SH, Park JS, Kwon KI, Kim MH, Park YB (2010): Survey on the sodium contents of nursery school meals in Gyeonggi-do. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 39(4): 526-534 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.4.526
  9. Kannel WB (1996): Blood pressure as a cardiovascular risk factor: prevention and treatment. JAMA 275(20): 1571-1576 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1996.03530440051036
  10. Kim JA, Kim YH, Ann MY, Lee YK (2012): Measurements of salinity and salt content by menu types served at industry foodservice operations in Daegu. Korean J community Nutr 17(5): 637-651 https://doi.org/10.5720/kjcn.2012.17.5.637
  11. Kim KO, Hwang IK (1992): A study on salt taste preference and food habits. Saenghwalgwahakyeongu 17: 61-64
  12. Kim YS, Paik HY (1987): Measurement of Na intake in Korean adult females. Korean J Nutr 20(5): 341-349
  13. Lim HJ (2001): A study on the calcium and sodium intakes and urinary calcium excretion of preschool children in Busan. Korean J Nutr 34(7): 786-796
  14. Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, Wardener HE, MacGregor GA (2005): Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev 85(2): 579-715
  15. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (2011): The fifth Korea national health & nutrition examination survey (KNHANES V). Available from http://knhanes.cdc.go.kr/ [cited 2012 March 29]
  16. Ministry of Health and Welfare (2013): Available from http://stat.mw.go.kr/front/statData/publicationView.jsp?menuId=40&bbsSeq=6&nttSeq=20721&searchKey=&searchWord=&nPage=1 [cited 2013 May 9]
  17. Pangborn RM, Pecore SD (1982): Taste perception of sodium chloride in relation to dietary intake of salt. Am J Clin Nutr 35(3): 510-520 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/35.3.510
  18. Shin EK, Lee HJ, Jun SY, Park EJ, Jung YY, Ahn MY, Lee YK (2008): Development and evaluation of nutrition education program for sodium reduction in foodservice operations. Korean J Community Nutr 13(2): 216-227
  19. Shin EK, Lee YK (2005): Evaluation of food and nutrient intake of preschool children in day-care centers. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34(7): 1008-1017 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2005.34.7.1008
  20. Sohn CY, Pak HO (2011): A survey on the foodservice management practice at child care centers in Gyeonggi area. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 21(4): 577-586
  21. Son SM, Huh GY, Lee HS (2005): Development and evaluation of validity of short dish frequency questionnqire (DFQ) and short DFQ using Na index for estimation of habitual sodium intake. Korean J Community Nutr 10(5): 677-692
  22. Son SM, Park YS, Lim WH, Kim SB, Jeong YS (2007): Development and evaluation of validity of short dish frequency questionnqire (DFQ) for estimation of habitual sodium intake for Korean adults. Korean J Community Nutr 12(6): 838-853
  23. Song ES, Kim EG (2009): A survey on the foodservice management system of the child care centers in Chungnam Asan area. Korean J Community Nutr 14(6): 846-860
  24. The Korean Nutrition Society (2010): Dietary reference intakes for Koreans. First revision. Hanarum publishing, Seoul
  25. Tsugane S (2005): Salt, salted food intakes, and risk of gastric cancer:epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Sci 96(1): 1-6 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2005.00006.x
  26. Yon M, Lee Y, Kim D, Lee J, Koh E, Nam E, Shin H, Kang BW, Kim JW, Heo S, Cho HY, Kim CI (2011): Major sources of sodium intake of the Korean population at prepared dish level-based on the KNHANES 2008 & 2009-. Korean J Community Nutr 16(4): 473-487 https://doi.org/10.5720/kjcn.2011.16.4.473