DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Degradation of TPHs, TCE, PCE, and BTEX Compounds for NAPLs Contaminated Marine Sediments Using In-Situ Air Sparging Combined with Vapor Extraction

증기추출법과 결합된 공기주입법을 이용한 비수용성액체 해양퇴적물의 TPHs, TCE, PCE 및 BTEX 정화

  • Lee, Jun-Ho (Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies) ;
  • Han, Sun-Hyang (Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies) ;
  • Park, Kap-Song (Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies)
  • 이준호 (한국외국어대학교 환경학과) ;
  • 한선향 (한국외국어대학교 환경학과) ;
  • 박갑성 (한국외국어대학교 환경학과)
  • Received : 2013.05.18
  • Accepted : 2013.10.06
  • Published : 2013.10.28

Abstract

This study was carried out in order to determine the remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) compounds for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) using in-situ air sparging (IAS) / vapor extraction (VE) with the marine sediments of Mandol, Hajeon, Sangam and Busan, South Korea. Surface sediment of Mandol area had sand characteristics (average particle size, 1.789 ${\Phi}$), and sandy silt characteristics (average particle size, 5.503 ${\Phi}$), respectively. Sangam surface sediment had silt characteristics (average particle size, 5.835 ${\Phi}$). Sediment characteristics before experiment in the Busan area showed clay characteristics (average particle size, 8.528 ${\Phi}$). TPHs level in the B1 column of Mandol, Hajeon, Sangam, and Busan sediments were 2,459, 6,712, 4,348, and 14,279 ppm. B2 (3 L/min) to B5 (5 L/min) columns reduced 99.5% to 100.0% of TCE and 93.2% to 100.0% of PCE. Removal rates of TCE, PCE, and BTEX are closely correlated (0.90-0.99) with particle sizes and organic carbon concentrations. However, TPHs (0.76) and benzene (0.71) showed the poorer but moderate correlations with the same parameters.

Keywords

in-situ air sparging;non-aqueous phase liquids;remediation;particle size;vapor extraction

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국외국어대학교

References

  1. Adams, J.A., Reddy K.R. and Tekola. L. (2011) Remediation of chlorinated solvent plumes using in-situ air sparging: A 2-D laboratory study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, v.8, p.2226-2239. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8062226
  2. Albergaria, J.T., Alvim-Ferraz M.D.C.M. and Delerue- Matos. C. (2012) Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons by soil vapour extraction. Journal of Environmental Management, v.104, p.195-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.03.033
  3. Al-maamari, R.S., Hirayama A.T., Shiga M., Sueyoshi M. and Al-Shuely O.A.E. (2011) Fluids' dynamics in transient air sparging of a heterogeneous unconfined aquifer. Environmental Earth Sci., v.63, p.1189-1198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-010-0793-y
  4. Carter, M.R and Gregorich E.G. (2006) Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. 2nd (ed.), CRC Press, Canadian Society of Soil Science, p.101-130.
  5. Folk, R.L. (1968) Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. The university of Texas Hemphill's draver M, university station Austin, Texas, 170p.
  6. Google map. (2013) http://maps.google.co.kr.
  7. Han, J.S. (2000) Underground Water Environment and Pollution. 2nd (ed.), Bakyeongsa, Seoul, 2p. (in Korea).
  8. Herbes, S.E., Southworth G.R. and Ghers C.W. (1976) Organic Contamination in Aqueous Coal Conversion Effluents: Environmental Consequences and Research Priorities (Technical report). University of Missouri, Columbia, p.20-24.
  9. Japan Society on Water Envionment. (2011) Administration of Water Environment in Japan, Academy Press, 184p. (in Korea).
  10. Jeong, C.J. (2008) Behavior and clean-up technique of spilled oil at sea and shoreline. J. Kor. Soc. Environ. Eng., v.30, p.136-145. (in Korea).
  11. Johnston, C.D., Rayne J.L. and Briegel D. (2002) Effectiveness of in-situ air sparging for removing NAPL gasoline from a sandy aquifer near Perth, Western Australia. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v.59, p.87-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7722(02)00077-3
  12. Jonn, W. (2003) How to clean a beach. Nature, v.422, p.464-466. https://doi.org/10.1038/422464a
  13. Kim, H.M. and Lee K.G. (2003) Numerical simulation and laboratory test analysis of air sparging for TCE remediation, The general meeting and the spring seminar. J. Soil & Groundwater Env., p.348-351. (in Korea).
  14. Kim, J.D., Kim Y.R., Hwang K.Y. and Lee. S.C. (2000) A study on recovery of gasoline-polluted soil site by the soil vapor extraction method. J. Soil & Groundwater Env., v.5, p.13-23. (in Korea).
  15. Kim, S.J. (2008) Herbei sprit oil spill accident. J. Kor. Soc. Environ. Eng., v.30, p.146-152. (in Korea).
  16. Krumbein, W.C. (1934) Size frequency distributions of sediments. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v.4, p.65-77.
  17. KS M ISO 16703. (2005) Content Measurement of Hydrocarbons in the Range of C10-C40 using Soil Quality-gas Chromatograph. (in Korea).
  18. Lee, J.H. and Park. K.S. (2007) Oil pollution degree on the Gurumpo beach, Taean, using SCAT evaluation technique. J. Environ. Sci. Eng., v.9, p.19-25. (in Korea).
  19. Lee, J.H., Cho B.C. and Park K.S. (2008) The recovery method of Uheundol north area, Taean, using the coastal pollution evaluation technology of Canada. J. Environ. Sci. Eng, v.10, p.24-32. (in Korea).
  20. Lundegard, P.D. and Labrecque D.J. (1995) Air spaging in a sandy aquifer (Florence, Oregon, U.S.A.): Actual and apparent radius of influence. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v.19, p.1-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-7722(95)00010-S
  21. Mcmanus, J. (1988) Grain Size Determination and Interpretation. M. Tucker (Ed.), Techniques in Sedimentology, Blackwell, Oxford, p.63-85.
  22. Meegoda. J.N. and Hu. L. (2011) A review of centrifugal testing of gasoline contamination and remediation. Int. J. Environ.l Res. Public Health, v.8, p.3496-3513. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8083496
  23. NOAA. (2002) Ocean Service Office of Response and Restoration. Shoreline assessment job aid, U.S. Departmnt of commerce, p.20-44.
  24. Oh, I.S., Jang S.W. and Lee S.J. (2002) Natural purification technology of BTEX-polluted soil and underground water, Collection of Essays. Industrial Technology Comprehensive Institute, v.24, p.135-154. (in Korea).
  25. Park, J.S., Nam G.W. and Hwang E.Y. (2000) The effect of air supply on removal of phenol compounds. J. Soil & Groundwater Env., v.5, p.3-12. (in Korea).
  26. Percy, R.J. (2008) Shoreline Clean-up Assessment Technology (SCAT). Polaris applied sciences, Inc., Environment Canada, p.5-20.
  27. Peterson, J.W., Murray K.S., Tulu Y.I. and Peuler B.D. (2001) Air-flow geometry in air sparging of finegrained sands. Hydrogeology Journal, v.9, p.168-176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s100400000104
  28. Peterson, J.W., DeBoer M.J. and Lake. K.L. (2000) A laboratory simulation of toluene cleanup by air sparging of water-saturated sands. Journal of Hazardous Materials, v.72, p.167-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(99)00139-9
  29. Peterson, J.W., Lepczyk P.A. and Lake. K.L. (1999) Effect of sediment size on area of influence during groundwater remediation by air sparging: A laboratory approach. Environmental Geol., v.38, p.1-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050394
  30. Reddy, K.R. and Adams J.A. (1996) In-situ Air Sparging: A new approach for groundwater remediation. Geotech. News, v.14, p.27-32.
  31. Rivett, M.O., Wealthall G.P., Dearden R.A. and Mcalary T.A. (2011) Review of unsaturated-zone transport and attenuation of volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes leached from shallow source zones. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v.132, p.130-156.
  32. Rockne, K.J. and Stuart E.S. (1998) Biodegradation of bicyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic enrichments. Environ. Sci. Technol., v.32, p.3962-3967. https://doi.org/10.1021/es980368k
  33. Umfleet, D.A., Sims R.C. and Pano A. (1984) Reclamation of PAH Contaminated Soils. ASCE Envir. Engrg, Specialty Conf., Los Angeles, Calif.
  34. US EPA. (1992) A Technology Assessment of Soil Vapor Extraction and Air Sparging. EPA/600/R-92/173, p.214-215.
  35. US EPA. (1996) Assessing UST Corrective Action Technologies: Diagnostic Evaluation of In-situ SVE-based System Performance. EPA/600/R-96/041, p.250-251.
  36. US EPA Method 8021B. (1996) Aromatic and Halogenated Volatiles by Gas Chromatography using Photoionization and/or Electrolytic Conductivity Detectors.
  37. US EPA Method 8260B. (1996) Volatile Organic Compounds by Gas Chromatography/mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).
  38. Wentworth, C.K. (1922) A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. Journal of Geology, v.30, p.377-392. https://doi.org/10.1086/622910