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Changes of Microbial Population in the Rumen of Dairy Steers as Influenced by Plant Containing Tannins and Saponins and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio

  • Anantasook, N. (Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Wanapat, M. (Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Cherdthong, A. (Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Gunun, P. (Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University)
  • Received : 2013.04.02
  • Accepted : 2013.06.14
  • Published : 2013.11.01

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate microbial population in the rumen of dairy steers as influenced by supplementing with dietary condensed tannins and saponins and different roughage to concentrate ratios. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers (Bos indicus) were used in a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. The main factors were two roughage to concentrate ratios (R:C, 60:40 and 40:60) and two supplementations of rain tree pod meal (RPM) (0 and 60 g/kg of total DM intake). Chopped 30 g/kg urea treated rice straw was used as a roughage source. All animals received feed according to respective R:C ratios at 25 g/kg body weight. The RPM contained crude tannins and saponins at 84 and 143 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that ruminal pH decreased while ruminal temperature increased by a higher concentrate ratio (R:C 40:60) (p<0.05). In contrast, total bacterial, Ruminococus albus and viable proteolytic bacteria were not affected by dietary supplementation. Numbers of fungi, cellulolytic bacteria, Fibrobactor succinogenes and Ruminococus flavefaciens were higher while amylolytic bacteria was lower when steers were fed at 400 g/kg of concentrate. The population of Fibrobactor succinogenes, was found to be higher with RPM supplementation. In addition, the use of real-time PCR technique indicated that the population of protozoa and methanogens were decreased (p<0.05) with supplementation of RPM and with an increasing concentrate ratio. Supplementation of RPM and feeding different concentrate ratios resulted in changing the rumen microbes especially, when the animals were fed at 600 g/kg of concentrate and supplemented with RPM which significantly reduced the protozoa and methanogens population.

Keywords

Tannins;Saponins;Microbial Population;Roughage to Concentrate Ratio;Rumen

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