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Cigarette Smoking and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Revisit with an Assessment of the Nicotine Dependence Phenotype

  • Nakao, Makoto (Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute) ;
  • Hosono, Satoyo (Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute) ;
  • Ito, Hidemi (Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute) ;
  • Oze, Isao (Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute) ;
  • Watanabe, Miki (Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute) ;
  • Mizuno, Nobumasa (Department of Gastroenterology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital) ;
  • Yatabe, Yasushi (Department of Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital) ;
  • Yamao, Kenji (Department of Gastroenterology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital) ;
  • Niimi, Akio (Department of Medical Oncology and Immunology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Tajima, Kazuo (Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute) ;
  • Tanaka, Hideo (Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute) ;
  • Matsuo, Keitaro (Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute)
  • Published : 2013.07.30

Abstract

Background: Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor of pancreatic cancer (PC). Although an association between nicotine dependence phenotype, namely time to first cigarette (TTFC) after waking, and the risk of several smoking-related cancers has been reported, an association between TTFC and PC risk has not been reported. We assessed the impact of smoking behavior, particularly TTFC, on PC risk in a Japanese population. Materials and Methods: We conducted a case-control study using 341 PC and 1,705 non-cancer patients who visited Aichi Cancer Center in Nagoya, Japan. Exposure to risk factors, including smoking behavior, was assessed from the results of a self-administered questionnaire. The impact of smoking on PC risk was assessed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Cigarettes per day (CPD) and/or smoking duration were significantly associated with PC risk, consistent with previous studies. For TTFC and PC risk, we found only a suggestive association: compared with a TTFC of more than 60 minutes, ORs were 1.15 (95%CI, 0.65-2.04) for a TTFC of 30-60 minutes and 1.35 (95%CI, 0.85-2.15) for that of 0-30 minutes (p trend=0.139). After adjustment for CPD or smoking duration, no association was observed between TTFC and PC. Conclusions: In this study, we found no statistically significant association between TTFC and PC risk. Further studies concerning TTFC and PC risk are warranted.

Keywords

Pancreatic cancer;smoking;nicotine;addiction

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